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Periodontitis and systemic diseases: A bidirectional relationship.
Periodontitis is an infective condition attributable to certain pathogens, namely, Aggregatibacter actinomycetecomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and so on. Crevicular fluid often contains inflammatory mediators and the oral pathogens associated with periodontitis. The mechanism underlying this destructive process involves both direct tissue damage resulting from biofilm (plaque bacterial) products and indirect damage through bacterial induction of the host inflammatory and immune responses. The possible link may involve direct and indirect effects of the periodontal infection; an alternative pathway may be related to genetic and other host factors that increase the susceptibility to both atherosclerosis/thrombosis and chronic periodontitis.
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