Ribosomes are located within all living cells and are responsible for the production of proteins. To do this they are able to read sequences of genomic material to convert them into protein sequences using the genetic code. These organelles are thought to be ancient molecular machines spanning 4 billion years of life on earth. It is the oldest and most universal macro-molecular sub-unit in the biological world.
The rules that govern the information flow during the the translation of genomic material to protein within the ribosome is known as "The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology". This central dogma says that RNA and protein depend on each other for synthesis. The evolution of the ribosome is based on the last universal common ancestor of life, also referred to as LUCA. Methods for the reconstruction of the evolution of the ribosome are described in this video.
Sources: RiboZones; Center for Molecular Biology of RNA (UC-Santa Cruz); PNAS