Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently described family of lymphoid effector cells with important roles in immunological defense and tissue remodeling. They have only recently been studied in-depth and it seems that their mechanism within the immune system is quite complex. They have been found to be most active in the skin and the gut mucosa, but are also present in major organs and in the lymph nodes.
ILCs are unique because they don't operate like other cells that react to antigens, but rather they are activated by cytokine signals from the tissue they inhabit. There are three types of ILCs found in the gut microbiome and their interaction in keeping out pathogens is only recently been described. Through complex cell , these immune defense cells interact at the smallest cellular level. This interaction could help researchers find new immunotherapy treatments as well as more fully understand the body's immune defense system.