membrane protein expression
are the building blocks of all living organisms and play crucial roles in biological processes. To investigate how a particular protein modulates biological processes, many aspects of the protein such as structure, modification, localization, interaction, and function needs to be studied. A considerable number of proteins, especially membrane proteins, are screened in drug discovery as biological targets or as potential drugs themselves. Most of these proteins are produced using cell-based or cell-free expression systems, which typically includes the transcription of recombinant DNA into mRNA that is further translated into the protein under study.