Proctology: dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. One of the most critical systems in the human body is the Gastrointestinal tract. Proctology is the science of understanding and working with the processes involved in the lower portion of that tract. If anything gets out of whack anywhere along the way from one end to the other, problems arise that can be painful and debilitating. In more current terminology, a proctology exam is referred to as a colorectal exam and is particularly effective in finding the answers to what will make the system work correctly.