DEC 06, 2016 1:10 PM PST

Diagnosed: Agent Orange is the Culprit Behind Rare Sarcoma

WRITTEN BY: Xuan Pham
In a new case report, doctors suspect Agent Orange as the cause of a rare type of soft tissue cancer known as pleomorphic liposarcoma.

Agent Orange is the infamous warfare herbicide that was doused in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. It was so-called “Agent Orange” due to orange-striped 55-gallon drums that were used to store the chemicals. The compounds – a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) - acted to strip leaves from trees and plants. By destroying the crops, bushes, and trees, this defoliant served as a powerful wartime weapon.

However, the toxicity of Agent Orange carried over to human health too. The nearly 20 million gallons of chemicals sprayed in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia are linked to a multitude of health problems. These range from stillbirths, to birth defects like cleft palate, spina bifida, and other neural tube defects, and mental disability. It’s estimated that millions of Vietnamese people became victims of Agent Orange.
 

And the list of victims also includes the American soldiers who served in Vietnam during the 1960s and 1970s. While cancer risks from Agent Orange has been strongly suspected for a long time, the current case report marks the first time the defoliant is linked to pleomorphic liposarcoma.

Pleomorphic liposarcoma is a cancer that arise from soft tissues, like fat, joints, or muscles. The name pleomorphic refers to the multi-shape appearance of the cancer cells under the microscope. While soft tissue sarcomas are rare, pleomorphic liposarcoma are even rarer. However, the cancer is extremely fast-growing and has a penchant for spreading and recurring. As such, it is notoriously difficult to treat.

The patient, a 69-year-old Vietnam War veteran, was exposed to Agent Orange from his years of service in an area sprayed with the herbicide. Upon examination, doctors found an enlarged mass in his right thigh. This was accompanied by reports of a bout of year long pain. A tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pleomorphic liposarcoma.

"There has been no well-established precipitating factor for liposarcomas," the doctors wrote. "However, clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for persistent and evolving soft tissue masses, especially in patients with a previous military background. This should prompt the search for a possible toxin exposure." In other words, Agent Orange seemed to be the smoking gun for this seemingly rare type of cancer.
 

This case is a reminder of how little we understand about the health effects of Agent Orange, and how the ramifications are still being felt decades after the event has passed.

"The patient was educated about his diagnosis and was counselled about the unfortunate side effects with which Agent Orange has been associated. He continues to be monitored for disease recurrence and will continue to do so for years,” the doctors wrote.

Additional sources: EurekAlert!
About the Author
  • I am a human geneticist, passionate about telling stories to make science more engaging and approachable. Find more of my writing at the Hopkins BioMedical Odyssey blog and at TheGeneTwist.com.
You May Also Like
MAR 18, 2020
Drug Discovery & Development
MAR 18, 2020
Drug Could Effectively Treat a Lethal Blood Cancer
A pricey drug, called tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is used to continuously treat the blood cancer Chronic Myeloid Le ...
APR 06, 2020
Cancer
APR 06, 2020
A New Lead in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinomas
  Hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC, is a type of liver cancer, and the third most prevalent cancer-caused death in ...
APR 02, 2020
Cancer
APR 02, 2020
Diagnosing Cancer: SMOC2 and Thyroid Cancer
  Thyroid cancer is the most common of the endocrine cancers, with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) being the mo ...
APR 16, 2020
Cancer
APR 16, 2020
The Unseen Barriers Surrounding Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. With a poor five year prognosis and lack of effective tr ...
MAY 07, 2020
Cancer
MAY 07, 2020
Yet Another Cancer Linked Tyrosine Kinase
In a cell, there are tens of thousands of individual components. Each component has a specific activity or role that the ...
MAY 23, 2020
Cancer
MAY 23, 2020
A New Biomarker to Identify a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Prognosis
Breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in the world, are commonly separated into one of several sub-types. These ...
Loading Comments...