JUL 17, 2017 6:48 PM PDT

Putting A Target On Cancer's Back

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

Scientists are putting a target on cancer’s back, and immune cells are being trained to track down and kill that target. In a new study from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, researchers describe how they used immune cells acquired from donated umbilical cord blood to be trained and suited up to identify leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells.

 

A Wright's stained peripheral blood smear showing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The lymphocytes with the darkly staining nuclei and scant cytoplasm are the CLL cells.

 

Natural killer (NK) cells derived from cord blood are capable of targeting cancer on their own, but a new method of modifying these cells makes them even better at getting the job done. First, they are genetically engineered to be particularly persistent on finding and killing cancer. Lacing their genome with an immune chemical called interleukin (IL) 15 accomplishes this.

Next, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) focuses NK cells on B cell malignancies, such as surface protein CD19. This, says study researcher Elizabeth Shpall, MD, turns the NK cells into “guided missiles.” Lastly, researchers included a “self-destruct gene,” installed to protect already-weakened cancer patients against an excessive inflammatory response.

Results from studies in cell lines and mouse model showed that the modified NK cells destroyed tumors better and longer than normal NK cells. A unique phase I/II human clinical trial for patients with relapsed or resistant B cell cancers, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, began in June. Scientists will assess the potential of the newly modified NK cells in the setting of human cancer, the ultimate test.

"Natural killer cells are the immune system's most potent killers, but they are short-lived and cancers manage to evade a patient's own NK cells to progress," explained Katy Rezvani, MD, PhD. "Our cord-blood derived NK cells… are designed to address these challenges.” Indeed, Rezvani’s modified NK cells have been shown to persist for months instead of just a few weeks.

Benefits of using this approach in NK cells versus T cells

There is a risk of graft versus host disease in CAR T cells if cells are taken from a donor. T cells can be taken from the patient, but the process of transforming them into CAR T cells takes several weeks. So far, CAR NK cells from donated cord blood have shown no risk of graft versus host disease.

The MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank, found and directed by Shpall, now has 26,000 cords stored. The present study was published in the journal Leukemia.

Sources: University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Nature Immunology

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
JUN 09, 2021
Clinical & Molecular DX
Faster, Cheaper Diagnosis of Rare Cancer in Fat Cells
JUN 09, 2021
Faster, Cheaper Diagnosis of Rare Cancer in Fat Cells
Scientists have created a gene panel test to quickly and more precisely diagnose common forms of liposarcoma. This break ...
JUN 14, 2021
Cell & Molecular Biology
Can An Omega-3 Fatty Acid Destroy Tumors?
JUN 14, 2021
Can An Omega-3 Fatty Acid Destroy Tumors?
The body needs fatty acts for a variety of functions, and the health benefits of taking fatty acid supplements have long ...
JUN 26, 2021
Cancer
Immunotherapy Drug Shows Promise for Obese Patients with Breast Cancer
JUN 26, 2021
Immunotherapy Drug Shows Promise for Obese Patients with Breast Cancer
Research shows that obese patients with cancers including ovarian and melanoma may respond better to a certain kind of i ...
SEP 02, 2021
Immunology
Hobit Activates Cancer-Killing Immune Cells
SEP 02, 2021
Hobit Activates Cancer-Killing Immune Cells
Innate lymphoid cells, or ILCs, are specialized immune cells that are increasingly entering the research spotlight. Thes ...
OCT 04, 2021
Cancer
Good News for Coffee Lovers: A New Study Finds Caffeine Does Not Impact Breast Cancer Risk
OCT 04, 2021
Good News for Coffee Lovers: A New Study Finds Caffeine Does Not Impact Breast Cancer Risk
Reports indicate that caffeine consumption in the United States is greatest in adults aged 50 – 64.  Coincide ...
OCT 10, 2021
Cell & Molecular Biology
DNA Can Reveal Treatments for Lung Cancer in 'Never-Smoked' Patients
OCT 10, 2021
DNA Can Reveal Treatments for Lung Cancer in 'Never-Smoked' Patients
There is a well-known causal connection between smoking and lung cancer, and most research on lung cancer has been focus ...
Loading Comments...