JUN 15, 2018 08:27 AM PDT

Red Meat Allergy Causes Heart Disease

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

For people with an uncommon sensitivity to a particular carbohydrate in red meat, the risk of heart disease is elevated when red meat is consumed. From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the University of Virginia Health System, scientists show for the first time the connection between this red meat allergy and the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

Allergy to red meat may be an underrecognized factor in heart disease.

Findings of this new study are pulling the focus away from saturated fat, high levels of which have before caused scientists to link together red meat and increased risk of heart disease. Now scientists are concerned about sensitivity to a red meat allergen that leads to plaque buildup in the coronary arteries, a condition called atherosclerosis that leads to heart disease.

Plaques are made up of cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin, and their buildup causes arteries to become thicker, restricting blood flow. Atherosclerosis can lead to coronary artery disease, angina, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease.

“Allergy to red meat may be an underrecognized factor in heart disease," explained study leader Coleen McNamara, MD. "These preliminary findings underscore the need for further clinical studies in larger populations from diverse geographic regions and additional laboratory work."

The allergen is a carbohydrate called galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-Gal). The allergy is restricted to red meat because alpha-Gal exists only in most non-primate mammalian cell membranes. A bite from the Lone Star tick causes sensitization to alpha-Gal, a phenomenon that has a monumental effect on the geographic distribution of red meat allergies. The more common the Lone Star tick is, the higher the prevalence of alpha-Gal allergies. Places like the Southeastern U.S. and Long Island, New York, are especially known for the tick and the allergy.

Scientists aren’t sure exactly how many people in the United States have a true red meat allergy, but they guess it’s around one percent of the population. A much larger amount of people (20 percent approximately) produce antibodies to alpha-Gal without actually showing symptoms of a “true” allergy.

The present study to diagnose the relationship between alpha-Gal allergies and heart disease was with 118 adult participants from Virginia. Researchers conducted a blood sample analysis looking for antibodies that targeted alpha-Gal. They found such antibodies - a type of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 26 percent of participants. Imaging showed that plaque buildup was 30 percent higher in these participants. This specific type of IgE is specific to the alpha-Gal allergen.

The present study was published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

Sources: American Heart Association, Popular Science, UNC Chapel Hill Department of Medicine, NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
MAY 03, 2018
Cardiology
MAY 03, 2018
Immune Cells and Heart Disease: Helpful or Harmful?
Depending on where an immune cell is during injury to the heart, like during a heart attack, their activity can either be harmful or helpful. From Case Wes...
JUN 23, 2018
Videos
JUN 23, 2018
In Search of Genetic Risk Factors for AFib
Researchers at Mass General have recently learned more about genetic factors that are contributing to a person's risk of developing AFib....
JUL 10, 2018
Cardiology
JUL 10, 2018
Going Digital for Heart Disease Detection
A group based out of Scripps has utilized a new, patient-centric, mobile medical device to help diagnosis Atrial Fibrillation....
AUG 11, 2018
Cardiology
AUG 11, 2018
New System Limits Cardiac Damage with Rapid Response
New targeted drug delivery system allows for rapid response to break down clots during heart attack, limiting cardiac damage....
SEP 06, 2018
Cardiology
SEP 06, 2018
Helping patients breathe normally again post heart failure.
One of the most common complaints from those recovering from heart failure (HF) is shortness of breath or dyspnea. This difficulty breathing is often viewe...
SEP 23, 2018
Cardiology
SEP 23, 2018
Take Control of Your Heart Data With Apple's New Watch
      Consumer grade activity trackers have been steadily increasing in popularity in recent years. Although these wearables initially were...
Loading Comments...