SEP 13, 2016 12:19 PM PDT

How can understanding epigenetic tags be used to treat cancer?

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker
Errors in DNA methylation are often found to be causative in different types of cancer, but scientists still do not know what molecular mishaps are at the root of the problem. In a new study from the Van Andel Research Institute, the inheritance of methyl tags among generations of dividing cells might hold the answer.
Source: www.epibeat.com
“What we didn’t realize before this study is that [key players orchestrating DNA methylation] all work together in an elegant way,” said senior author Scott Rothbart, PhD.

Rothbart and the team from the Van Andel Research Institute are focused on the potential to develop new drug therapies for cancer and other pathologies that result from errors in DNA methylation. In their current study, a collaboration with UNC Chapel Hill, University of Washington, University of Toronto, they zero in on the role of a specific protein: UHRF1. 

UHRF1 protein is able to recognize the inheritance pattern of methyl tags as dividing cells pass epigenetic information on to their daughter cells. In addition, UHRF1 promotes the addition of new methyl tags, which communicate the activation or inactivation of certain genes, ultimately deciding how a cell functions.

During their study of UHRF1 and its function during cell division and DNA methylation, the researchers found that the protein recognizes newly-copied DNA sites due to a lack of methylation. UHRF1 then simultaneously calls on a protein called histone H3 and attaches a small ubiquitin protein to it. 

The ubiquitination of histone H3 then signals to DNA methylation enzymes to add a methyl tag to the newly-copied DNA site. The entire signaling process is apparently controlled by a “pre-existing pattern of epigenetic signals,” all recognized by UHRF1. 

"This exquisite regulation of an ubiquitin ligase has not been previously described and is very exciting for the field of ubiquitin biology,” said Joe Harrison, PhD, from UNC Chapel Hill.


In the future, the team plans on developing different screening methods to identify compounds capable of correcting errors that occur in the process of DNA methylation, which have been linked to tumor formation in multiple types of cancer.

The study was recently published in the journal eLife
 


Source: Van Andel Research Institute
About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
DEC 06, 2019
Genetics & Genomics
DEC 06, 2019
Breast Cancer Drug Increases Survival for Prostate Cancer Patients
A breast cancer drug is better at treating advanced prostate cancer in some men than current therapies, a clinical trial shows....
DEC 06, 2019
Neuroscience
DEC 06, 2019
Autism May be Linked to an Immune Disorder
Until now, diagnosis for autism spectrum disorder have relied on behavioral assessments looking for symptoms including poor social and communication skills...
DEC 06, 2019
Genetics & Genomics
DEC 06, 2019
Identifying the Origins of Modern Humans
New research reported in Nature has suggested that modern humans come from Southern Africa, where they lived for approximately 70,000 years....
DEC 06, 2019
Genetics & Genomics
DEC 06, 2019
Understanding How Loose RNA Molecules Help Rejuvenate Skin
This work may help develop new treatments for skin that is aging or damaged by wounds or burns....
DEC 06, 2019
Genetics & Genomics
DEC 06, 2019
Evaluating the Genetic Damage Caused by Cancer Treatments
Now that we know more about the impact of some cancer treatments, they can be applied optimally....
DEC 06, 2019
Genetics & Genomics
DEC 06, 2019
Depression is Not Caused By Genetics
Since the discovery of DNA, attributing the cause of illnesses to genetic reasons became trendy. Depression was no exception- with hundreds of studies havi...
Loading Comments...