JUN 06, 2020 10:17 AM PDT

Cancer Cell Clusters Better At Resisting the Immune System

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

For cancerous cells in the body, it seems there is safety in numbers. Researchers from a newly published study investigated the unique advantage cancer cell clusters have over single cancer cells in their ability to metastasize and spread cancer from one part of the body to another. However, with this enhanced understanding of cluster cells’ abilities comes a potential solution.

Cancer metastasizes when either a single cancerous cell or a cluster of cells breaks away from the original tumor and enters the body’s circulation, like one car or a caravan of cars may leave one area and merge onto a highway on the way to a new destination. However, unlike the cars, once the cancer cell reaches its new destination, it sets up camp and triggers the growth of a new tumor, now making a person’s case of cancer twice as dangerous.

Clusters may have higher “metastatic potential” than single cells; the new study investigates why that is. Interestingly, clusters have also been associated with resistance to chemotherapy in the past.

With studies of various animal models in the context of lung cancer metastasis rates and severity, researchers quickly found that the metastatic potential associated with clusters was due to their increased resistance to natural killer (NK) cells. It appeared that NK cells were more efficient at clearing out single cancer cells attempting metastasis as opposed to clusters.

NK cells are immune cells responsible for cancer surveillance and destruction. They are part of the innate immune response, a non-specific, first response to pathogenic infections and cancer. NK cells release molecules toxic to cancerous cells in response to recognition of certain cell surface molecules designating cancerous cells as a target.

Researchers found that clusters seem to be uniquely able to suppress NK cell activity. Cancer cells display certain cell surface molecules that impact NK cell activity. Researchers found that cancer cell clusters display more surface molecules that suppress NK cell activity than molecules that increase their activity.

Interestingly, this mechanism or a similar mechanism may also be employed to elicit the chemotherapy-resistant effect associated with cancer cell clusters.

Now, with a new understanding of how and why metastasis potential can vary in different cases of cancer, researchers are considering enhancing NK cell activity to combat cluster cell resistance.

Sources: Baylor College of Medicine, Nature Cancer, Immunology

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
FEB 02, 2021
Immunology
Tumors Under Seige by Cancer-Killing Salmonella
FEB 02, 2021
Tumors Under Seige by Cancer-Killing Salmonella
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped bacteria, often given a bad rap thanks to its association with food poisoning. But c ...
FEB 10, 2021
Immunology
Cross-Reactive Antibodies Don't Protect Against COVID
FEB 10, 2021
Cross-Reactive Antibodies Don't Protect Against COVID
Did you know that hundreds of viruses can cause the common cold? Rhinovirus, adenovirus, and coronavirus infections can ...
MAR 30, 2021
Immunology
Single-Cell Technology Exposes Melanoma's Weak Spot
MAR 30, 2021
Single-Cell Technology Exposes Melanoma's Weak Spot
The immune system encompasses a powerful arsenal of weapons against pathogenic threats. But what stops healthy tissues i ...
APR 03, 2021
Cancer
New factor plays a key role in immune response
APR 03, 2021
New factor plays a key role in immune response
In a study published recently in Science Immunology, WEHI’s Professor Stephen Nutt, Dr. Michael Chopin, and Mr. Sh ...
APR 20, 2021
Immunology
Scientists Map the Genetic Landscape of COVID Infections
APR 20, 2021
Scientists Map the Genetic Landscape of COVID Infections
Scientists have identified 65 human immune genes activated during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This finding provides valuable i ...
APR 22, 2021
Drug Discovery & Development
mRNA Covid Vaccines May Protect Against New Strains and Common Cold
APR 22, 2021
mRNA Covid Vaccines May Protect Against New Strains and Common Cold
Researchers from Johns Hopkins have found that the mRNA Covid vaccines developed by Pfizer and Moderna not only work wit ...
Loading Comments...