JUN 06, 2020 10:17 AM PDT

Cancer Cell Clusters Better At Resisting the Immune System

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

For cancerous cells in the body, it seems there is safety in numbers. Researchers from a newly published study investigated the unique advantage cancer cell clusters have over single cancer cells in their ability to metastasize and spread cancer from one part of the body to another. However, with this enhanced understanding of cluster cells’ abilities comes a potential solution.

Cancer metastasizes when either a single cancerous cell or a cluster of cells breaks away from the original tumor and enters the body’s circulation, like one car or a caravan of cars may leave one area and merge onto a highway on the way to a new destination. However, unlike the cars, once the cancer cell reaches its new destination, it sets up camp and triggers the growth of a new tumor, now making a person’s case of cancer twice as dangerous.

Clusters may have higher “metastatic potential” than single cells; the new study investigates why that is. Interestingly, clusters have also been associated with resistance to chemotherapy in the past.

With studies of various animal models in the context of lung cancer metastasis rates and severity, researchers quickly found that the metastatic potential associated with clusters was due to their increased resistance to natural killer (NK) cells. It appeared that NK cells were more efficient at clearing out single cancer cells attempting metastasis as opposed to clusters.

NK cells are immune cells responsible for cancer surveillance and destruction. They are part of the innate immune response, a non-specific, first response to pathogenic infections and cancer. NK cells release molecules toxic to cancerous cells in response to recognition of certain cell surface molecules designating cancerous cells as a target.

Researchers found that clusters seem to be uniquely able to suppress NK cell activity. Cancer cells display certain cell surface molecules that impact NK cell activity. Researchers found that cancer cell clusters display more surface molecules that suppress NK cell activity than molecules that increase their activity.

Interestingly, this mechanism or a similar mechanism may also be employed to elicit the chemotherapy-resistant effect associated with cancer cell clusters.

Now, with a new understanding of how and why metastasis potential can vary in different cases of cancer, researchers are considering enhancing NK cell activity to combat cluster cell resistance.

Sources: Baylor College of Medicine, Nature Cancer, Immunology

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
OCT 12, 2021
Immunology
Major Landmark in a 100-Year Search for a Malaria Vaccine
OCT 12, 2021
Major Landmark in a 100-Year Search for a Malaria Vaccine
In one of the greatest global health milestones of our time, the World Health Organization has approved the widespread d ...
NOV 11, 2021
Immunology
Malaria Researchers Make a Surprising Antibody Find
NOV 11, 2021
Malaria Researchers Make a Surprising Antibody Find
Researchers looking into the immunology of malaria infections have made an unexpected find that could ultimately lead to ...
NOV 30, 2021
Immunology
The Body Makes Its Own Anti-inflammatory 'Cannabis' After a Workout
NOV 30, 2021
The Body Makes Its Own Anti-inflammatory 'Cannabis' After a Workout
Feeling great after hitting the gym? That’s because of the flood of endorphins released into the body after a bout ...
JAN 03, 2022
Cancer
Heating Up the Immune Response: Turning Cold Tumors Hot
JAN 03, 2022
Heating Up the Immune Response: Turning Cold Tumors Hot
Immune checkpoints are present on the surface of immune cells throughout the body.  Under normal conditions, they r ...
JAN 18, 2022
Immunology
Humanized Mice Reveal the Origins of Lung Immune Cells
JAN 18, 2022
Humanized Mice Reveal the Origins of Lung Immune Cells
Viruses such as coronaviruses can be transmitted when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. Cells called macroph ...
JAN 17, 2022
Cancer
High Fiber Diet Provides a Helpful Boost to Melanoma Treatment
JAN 17, 2022
High Fiber Diet Provides a Helpful Boost to Melanoma Treatment
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising new treatment for advanced cancers, including melanoma. Immu ...
Loading Comments...