MAY 11, 2016 11:03 AM PDT

Immune Cell Transforms from 'Clark Kent' to 'Superman'

New Findings Could Be a Step Toward Preventing Autoimmune Disease

A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) reveals a previously unknown type of immune cell. The discovery opens new avenues in the effort to develop novel therapies for autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

The newly discovered cells resemble conventional T cells, yet are biased toward becoming T regulatory cells (Tregs), which protect the body from autoimmune disease.

“This study was eye-opening,” said study senior author and TSRI biologist Oktay Kirak. “You wouldn’t expect these cells to have this ability. The best analogy I have is Clark Kent turning into Superman. Clark Kent looks like an Average Joe, so no one would expect him to have the same abilities as Superman.”
Authors of the new Scripps Research Institute study include (left to right) Justin Abadejos, Oktay Kirak and Manching Ku.
The findings are being published the week of April 4, 2016 online ahead of print in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Stopping Type 1 Diabetes

The body has an army of millions of immune cells. These cells contain receptors generated through random genetic rearrangements—a clever strategy to keep them ready to fight unfamiliar viruses and bacteria. This diverse pool leaves many questions for scientists, however, about which ones are active in specific diseases.

One puzzling disease is type 1 diabetes, in which immune cells mistakenly attack insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Scientists know that Tregs should be able control this autoimmune response, deflecting the attack. Current clinical trials are focusing on increasing the numbers of Treg cells and finding ways to make them enter the pancreas.

In the new study, researchers began to solve this problem by isolating an individual Treg from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes and inserting its nucleus—which contained the unique genetic immune receptor information—into a mouse egg cell that had its own nucleus removed.

Using this cloning method (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer), the scientists created a mouse model that produced only the original Treg, allowing them to study its origins and functions for the first time.

Unmasking a ‘Super’ Treg

The scientists found that the Treg originated in a lymphoid organ called the thymus, making it a “naturally” arising Treg, called an nTreg.

After figuring that out, said Kirak, “things got crazy.”

The mouse could only make one type of T cells, yet researchers began spotting a second type of T cell in the thymus and spleen. “We realized that the one T cell type exists in two functional states,” Kirak said. “That was a huge surprise—I didn’t believe it at first.”

After repeating their experiment several times, the researchers determined that the two T cell types, while genetically identical, looked different because one of them could switch on a gene called FoxP3. An nTreg with inactive FoxP3 (named a pre-nTreg) looked like any other generic or “conventional” T cell, but when activated, the pre-nTreg became an nTreg.

The researchers think pre-nTregs may be activated in response to many kinds of immune challenges, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer and infections. One of the big questions now is whether a future therapy could push more pre-nTregs to activate and control diseases such as diabetes.

“There are so many things to do now,” said Kirak. His lab at TSRI plans to such develop markers to identify different Treg and pre-Treg types. He’d also like to use the cloning technique to investigate immune cells in the body’s response to cancers.

In addition to Kirak, authors of the study, “A Nuclear Transfer nTreg model reveals fate-determining TCRbeta and novel peripheral nTreg precursors,” were Manching Ku, Shih-En Chang, Julio C. Hernandez, Justin Abadejos, Mohsen Sabouri-Ghomi, Niklas J. Muenchmeier, Anna Schwarz and Anna Valencia of TSRI.
_________
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Kirak Lab Website
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

This article was originally published at Scripps Research Institute.

(Thumbnail image from www.epibeat.com)
About the Author
  • The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is one of the world's largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. TSRI is internationally recognized for its contributions to science and health, including its role in laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. An institution that evolved from the Scripps Metabolic Clinic founded by philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps in 1924, the institute now employs about 2,700 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists-including two Nobel laureates-work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards PhD degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. For more information, see www.scripps.edu.
You May Also Like
SEP 07, 2019
Immunology
SEP 07, 2019
A New Way To Fight Severe Peanut Allergies
Dr. Sandra Lin explains how SLIT is currently being used to treat allergies other than peanuts.    Over 1 million U.S. children have an allergy t...
OCT 16, 2019
Health & Medicine
OCT 16, 2019
Study Links High Birth Weight to Risk of Allergies
Researchers from the University of Adelaide, Australia have linked the risk of developing childhood food allergies and eczema to heavier birth weight. The...
OCT 16, 2019
Immunology
OCT 16, 2019
Coffee Bean Extracts for Fat-induced Inflammation
One man’s coffee trash is another man’s solution for addressing chronic inflammation. A new Food and Chemical Toxicology study illustrates the ...
OCT 22, 2019
Immunology
OCT 22, 2019
Immune System Responsible for Organ Failure in Malaria
In the most severe cases of malaria, a person can experience organ failure and die. Often times, though, this is not directly due to the parasitic malaria ...
DEC 20, 2019
Health & Medicine
DEC 20, 2019
A Natural Approach to Pain Management
In many instances, pain can be a rather useful tool. It informs individuals that something is amiss with their body and they should seek treatment. However...
JAN 14, 2020
Clinical & Molecular DX
JAN 14, 2020
Can I eat this donut? A quick test for celiac disease.
Genetic testing revealed that our ancestors have been eating wheat, rye, spelt and barley for over 8,000 years. Today, gluten, a protein found within these...
Loading Comments...