Discrimination against women has typically been attributed to hostile and demeaning stereotypes about womens capabilities. However, a growing body of evidence shows that subjectively positive, but patronizing views undermine and sabotage women in traditionally masculine occupations, including STEM fields. Specifically, benevolent sexism the belief that women are wonderful but fragile, and require mens protection and assistance limits womens opportunities, leads to soft and uninformative feedback, and undermines womens performance by creating intrusive thoughts that interfere with executive functioning. Relatedly, subjectively positive, but prescriptive stereotypes that women should be warmer than men create backlash when women assert themselves (e.g., promote their work). Because benevolently, as compared to hostile, sexist attitudes are more widely accepted and (falsely) viewed as harmless, women as well as men often endorse benevolently sexist views. Women who internalize benevolent sexism show less ambitious educational and occupational aspirations, increased concern that career success will interfere with heterosexual romance, and greater tolerance for gender inequality. The first step in combating these problems is to recognize that benevolent sexism has nontrivial and insidious effects on female scientists. Organizations that train and employ science can systematically reduce bias and increase womens success by attending to and modifying subtle cues that signal to women that they dont belong. Organizations can also promote wise mentoring, which involves: (a) believing and communicating that scientific talent develops through training (is not fixed and unchanging), (b) combining critical feedback using high standards with (c) messages that the mentee belongs, has promise, and is being given the feedback to accelerate her or his development.
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