Systems neuroscience offers new and powerful conceptual frameworks for testing the fundamental brain mechanisms that support behavior. More recently, modern neurotechnologies with translational potential are also emerging, offering new ways to precisely measure and manipulate human brain function. The intersection of these two domains is poised to create a new science of the human brain, Human Brain Science, that will connect the moment-by-moment changes in activity of billions of neurons to our mental experience and behavior. In this talk, I will explore the intersection of translational neurotechnology and systems neuroscience. First, I will present our work studying the uniquely human faculty of speech, drawing on systems neuroscience paradigms first developed in non-human primates. I will then discuss translational neurotechnology, focusing on our work to develop high-resolution, flexible thin-film electrode arrays in non-human primates, and concluding with our on-going efforts to deploy thin-film electrode arrays to study and treat the human brain.