Medical applications of genetics and genomics have been advancing dramatically since completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The cost of DNA sequencing has plummeted, leading to the rapid introduction of sequencing-based testing into the clinic. Genomics has already changed our approach to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease; the day is not far off when most medical decisions will be to some extent informed by the outcome of a genetic or genomic test. Most practicing physicians were trained well prior to the genomic era, and even those who remember what they were taught about genetics will find that the field has changed beyond recognition. Although some of the genomics applications will be mediated through point-of-care decision support systems, there is a need for physicians to gain competency in multiple areas of genetic and genomic medicine. This includes use and interpretation of genetic and genomic predictive and diagnostic tests, using pharmacogenetic information to adjust drug administration, and customizing treatment to specific subtypes of disease defined by genetic testing. Physicians will also need to be able to incorporate the results of genome sequencing, including responding to incidental findings of genetic changes that indicate risk of disease. These educational challenges will need to be met for physicians in training and in practice, and will require the use of multiple educational modalities, including use of approaches such as online courses and case studies. Genetics and genomics may also be built into the maintenance of certification requirements in many specialty areas. A framework for development of physician competencies in genomic medicine has been formulated, which may facilitate the process of educating non-genetics physicians about genetics and genomics. There is a great need for innovative approaches to genetics and genomics education that will prepare physicians and other health providers.