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APR 14, 2021 9:00 AM PDT

Keynote Presentation: What the NIH Serosurvey Tells Us So Far and Why We Should Try to Develop a Broadly Protective/Universal Beta-Coronavirus Vaccine

C.E. Credits: P.A.C.E. CE Florida CE
Speaker
  • Director, LID Clinical Studies Unit, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
    Biography

      Dr. Memoli is a graduate of the College of William and Mary and he received his master's degree in microbiology from Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, PA. He then received his medical degree from St George's University School of Medicine. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the Washington Hospital Center Georgetown University Internal Medicine Program in Washington, DC. After completing an infectious disease fellowship in NIAID at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Memoli developed a clinical/translational research program to study influenza and other respiratory viruses in the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. He now serves as the Director of the LID Clinical Studies Unit (CSU) that seeks to perform translational research studies to answer fundamental questions regarding human influenza, respiratory viruses, and other emerging viral infections to inform and impact future vaccine and therapeutic design, while also making an effort to assist in evaluation of novel products that may impact human health. With a focus on healthy volunteer research, the LID CSU has been able to continue their primary work on influenza while quickly able to respond to assist in research of emerging infections.  Dr. Memoli is considered a leading expert in healthy volunteer challenge trials, respiratory virus infections, and influenza vaccines. In addition, in recent years Dr. Memoli's LID CSU has been heavily involved in the NIH response to emerging threats including the 2009 Influenza Pandemic, Zika, EBOLA, and COVID19.


    Abstract

    Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and delayed implementation of diagnostics have led to poorly defined viral prevalence rates. To address this, we analyzed seropositivity in US adults who have not previously been diagnosed with COVID-19. Individuals with characteristics that reflect the US population were selected by quota sampling from volunteers. Enrolled participants provided medical, geographic, demographic, socioeconomic information, and dried blood samples. The majority (88.7%) of samples were collected between May 10th and July 31st, 2020. The highest undiagnosed seropositivity was detected in Black/African American participants, younger, female, Hispanic, and Urban residents, and lower undiagnosed seropositivity in those with chronic diseases. These data indicate that there were 4.8 undiagnosed cases for every diagnosed case of COVID-19, and an estimated 16.8 million undiagnosed cases by mid-July 2020.  Given the high point estimate of undiagnosed seropositivity in younger donors, lower point estimates in individuals with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, and the vaccine rollout starting with older persons and those at risk, long-term study of naturally acquired immunity, vaccine acquired immunity, and vaccine boosted naturally acquired immunity will be necessary to fully understand the correlates of protection, durability of SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and the impact immunity will have long-term on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other future variants or novel coronaviruses. It is also clear from these data that novel coronaviruses can spread rapidly throughout human populations despite public health measures and we must therefore prepare for future novel coronaviruses and begin investigation into broadly protective countermeasures such as vaccines to mitigate this risk.

    Learning Objectives:

    1. Understand the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the first 6 months of the pandemic, the limitations of testing, and how this impacts the overall epidemiologic data being used to direct public health measures

    2. Understand what we can learn from these data and how we can alter our future pandemic responses to reduce the negative consequences of a pandemic

    3. Understand the need for broadly protective vaccines/countermeasures, how we failed in the past, what research needs to be done, how novel vaccines they could be evaluated, and what real expectations are for them


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