Developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools for brain disorders is an ethical imperative and conducting human research with neural devices is a key step towards achieving that goal. Conducting this research ethically is vital. Various actors in the field have asked for more guidance on how to ethically conduct human research with neural devices. This LabRoots session will focus on three specific ethical challenges: 1) analysis of risk, 2) obtaining informed consent, and 3) post-trial responsibilities to research participants. This talk is based on a workshop of the NIH BRAIN Initiative and draws on, specifies, and interprets existing ethical frameworks. The aim is to provide ethical guidance for researchers, Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), funders, and others engaged in human neural device research.