COVID-19 remains a global health emergency with limited treatment options, lagging vaccine rates, and inadequate healthcare resources in the face of an ongoing calamity. The disease is characterized by immune dysregulation and cytokine storm. Cyclosporine A (CSA) is a calcineurin inhibitor that modulates cytokine production and may have direct antiviral properties against coronaviruses. To test whether a short course of CSA was safe in patients with COVID-19, we treated 10 hospitalized, oxygen-requiring, noncritically ill patients with CSA (starting at a dose of 9 mg/kg/d). We evaluated patients for clinical response and adverse events, measured serum cytokines and chemokines associated with COVID-19 hyperinflammation, and conducted gene-expression analyses. Five participants experienced adverse events, none of which were serious; transaminitis was most common. No participant required intensive care unit–level care, and all patients were discharged alive. CSA treatment was associated with significant reductions in serum cytokines and chemokines important in COVID-19 hyperinflammation, including CXCL10. Following CSA administration, we also observed a significant reduction in type I IFN gene expression signatures and other transcriptional profiles associated with exacerbated hyperinflammation in the peripheral blood cells of these patients. Short courses of CSA appear safe and feasible in patients with COVID-19 who require oxygen and may be a useful adjunct in resource-limited health care settings.
1. Analyze how a clinical trial was implemented during the COVID Pandemic.
2. Identify the safety of cyclosporine for COVID-19 treatment.
3. Recognize how patient data was analyzed using the nCounter platform.