It was 10 years ago that Illumina first launched the Genome Analyzer II, the world’s first high-throughput sequencing platform. That system could produce one billion bps of sequence information of data per run, which helped ignite a new revolution in genomics. The past decade has seen further advances in data throughput, cost reductions, improved data quality and, most importantly, applications of next-generation sequencing. In this talk we will discuss how NGS has specifically enabled entire new areas of research and testing in the field of precision medicine, including human genome and exome sequencing, human microbiome analysis, and elucidation of the molecular details of human cancer. This talk will highlight the latest improvements in NGS and the interrelationships between science and technology in the field of personalized medicine.