APR 12, 2016 12:53 PM PDT

A Brain-Controlling Microscope?

WRITTEN BY: Xuan Pham
Not unlike technology straight out of science fiction, scientists at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a brain microscope so powerful it has single cell resolution. And with this level of accuracy, the scientists are able to study and manipulate neural activity related to some mice behaviors. The prototype could provide the most comprehensive and detailed understanding of the brain to date.
Laser microscope reveals brain activity at the single neuron level
To say the brain circuitry is complex is a large understatement. At any given time, neurons are sending and receiving messages from all over the body to allow us to process the world. This dynamic, complicated meshwork of axons and dendrites make it difficult for neuroscientists to zoom in. But the new microscope “achieves the level of detail needed to actually understand the neural code," said Hillel Adesnik, assistant professor of neurobiology at Berkeley, and senior study leader.
 
By combining and expanding on several tools already available, the team devised a microscope allows visualization of the brain of a live mouse in real time with millisecond accuracy. The mice were specifically engineered to have light-responsive neurons via a technique called optogenetics. In addition, the mice also had implanted glass windows on their skulls to allow the lasers of the microscope to penetrate.
 
The microscope is equipped with two high-powered infrared lasers that create a 3D holographic image of specific brain regions. And because the neurons respond to light, the researchers can manipulate neuron activity with the lasers. With this system, the team can study how neurons respond to external stimulation to an animal. They can also study the reverse, assessing how specific neuronal activity influences an animal’s behavior.
 
“If you want to learn a language, you need a dictionary, and if you want to understand how a machine works, you need to know its parts,” said Adesnik. “We wanted to develop a technology that can offer a general approach to understand the basic syntax of neural signals, so that we can begin to understand what a given brain circuit is doing and perhaps what’s gone wrong with that in the case of a disease.”
 
In initial tests, the team assessed small movements in the mice, such as whisker twitches. They mapped this pattern and then used it as a template to induce the same movements with the lasers. To expand on this form of neural circuitry learning, the team can make minor tweaks and adjustments with the lasers – activating different neurons – and learn how behavior is altered.
 
The team is currently using the microscope to manipulate what a mouse can see and perceive. Working with mice trained to push a lever when they see a certain shape, the team hopes to create a laser-induced hologram to fool the mouse into seeing a shape that’s not there, or perceiving a shape different than what’s present.
 
The experiments sound like science fiction, but the team recently presented their work at the American Association of Anatomists Annual Meeting during Experimental Biology in San Diego.
 
“With this new microscope, we believe we will soon be able to treat the brain as the keyboard of a piano, so to speak, and write in a sequence of activity that is needed to understand or correct brain function,” said Adesnik. “After more refinements, this instrument may be able to function as a sort of Rosetta Stone to help us crack the neural code.
 
The prototype still requires heavy testing and refinement. As is, the device is only compatible for genetically modified mice, though the team hopes to move it forward for rat models and non-human primates. One technical limitation that they hope to address soon is to develop a miniaturized version of the microscope, with the ultimate goal being an implantable device. “Such a device will find use in neural prosthetics for patients with paralysis or amputations, but may also be useful for various neurological diseases," said Adesnik. But for now those applications are still far into the future.
 
On a quest to look deeper into the brain, other neuroscientists have created a transparent mouse brain, which they’ve colored with different fluorescent tags. Watch this video to see what a transparent brain looks like!
 

Additional sources: FASEB press release, MNT
About the Author
  • I am a human geneticist, passionate about telling stories to make science more engaging and approachable. Find more of my writing at the Hopkins BioMedical Odyssey blog and at TheGeneTwist.com.
You May Also Like
APR 13, 2021
Cardiology
Can a Ketosis Metabolite Act as a Biomarker for Cardiovascular Diseases?
APR 13, 2021
Can a Ketosis Metabolite Act as a Biomarker for Cardiovascular Diseases?
Quick and reliable diagnostics are the key to controlling many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers ar ...
MAY 11, 2021
Clinical & Molecular DX
Every Minute Counts: Opportunities for Faster Blood Culture Results
MAY 11, 2021
Every Minute Counts: Opportunities for Faster Blood Culture Results
Sepsis is one of the most significant challenges in critical care, and early diagnosis is a decisive factor in determini ...
AUG 05, 2021
Clinical & Molecular DX
Wearable Patch Senses Blood Vessel Blockages
AUG 05, 2021
Wearable Patch Senses Blood Vessel Blockages
The cardiovascular system is like a network of highways, filled with an estimated 25 trillion red blood cells that conti ...
AUG 31, 2021
Clinical & Molecular DX
How Quickly Will Alzheimer's Progress? Inflammatory Proteins Have the Answers.
AUG 31, 2021
How Quickly Will Alzheimer's Progress? Inflammatory Proteins Have the Answers.
Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disease that affects over 26 million worldwide and is associated with memory prob ...
AUG 29, 2021
Cancer
Blood Test over 90% Accurate in Detecting Lung Cancer
AUG 29, 2021
Blood Test over 90% Accurate in Detecting Lung Cancer
An AI-powered blood test was able to correctly detect the presence of lung cancer over 90% of the time in patient sample ...
SEP 16, 2021
Drug Discovery & Development
A shot for sore eyes: a novel injectable drug to treat age-related vision loss
SEP 16, 2021
A shot for sore eyes: a novel injectable drug to treat age-related vision loss
According to the Population Reference Bureau, 40 million people in the United States are aged 65 and older. This nu ...
Loading Comments...