DEC 04, 2018 5:35 AM PST

Drug Combination May Be Effective for Melanoma

WRITTEN BY: Nouran Amin

Protein kinase inhibitors have been noted to be the most effective class of drugs in the treatment of melanoma—a deadly skin cancer of the melanocytes.

However, these inhibitors, in many cases, result in drug resistance causing a relapse in the patient.

Now, a new study published in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics suggested that the combination of kinase inhibitors with experimental drugs called ‘ribonucleases’ may be able to combat drug resistance and leading to better results. "We discovered that this ribonuclease drug could be paired favorably with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents, and not only that, the pairing made logical sense in terms of the underlying biochemistry," says Ronald Raines, the Firmenich Professor of Chemistry at MIT and senior author of the study.

Ribonucleases are enzymes that break down RNA molecules. They are produced by all human cells that and work to degrade cellular RNA and help defend against viral RNA. Overall, ribonucleases hold a unique ability to kill cells by damaging their RNA. "That means that should ribonuclease invade cells, there is an unbelievable defense system," Raines says.

In particular, the study observed an unexpected link between ribonucleases and enzymes--the protein kinases (targets of protein kinase inhibitors). This led researcher’s to the discovery of two drugs that can kill cancer cells at high efficacy. The discovery was the result of researchers using a ribonuclease inhibitor protein in human cells instead of E. coli, which they normally use to produce the protein. They found that the human-cell-produced version bound to ribonucleases 100 times more strongly.

MIT researchers are developing ribonucleases as potential drugs to treat cancer. In a new study, they found that the drugs work better when given with already-approved drugs known as kinase inhibitors.- MIT News

Image Credit: MIT News

Encouraged, the researchers created a ribonuclease drug that has been modified so ribonuclease inhibitors don't bind as tightly—one version of such drug has already made it to phase 1 clinical trial, stabilizing the disease in about 20 percent of patients.

Previously, researchers thought that human cells were somehow modifying the inhibitor to make it bind more tightly. These assumptions were confirmed when studies revealed that the inhibitor had attached phosphate groups which meant that it was phosphorylated. The "phosphorylation" allowed the inhibitor to bind strongly than previously suspected.

Source: MIT, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

About the Author
  • Nouran earned her BS and MS in Biology at IUPUI and currently shares her love of science by teaching. She enjoys writing on various topics as well including science & medicine, global health, and conservation biology. She hopes through her writing she can make science more engaging and communicable to the general public.
You May Also Like
NOV 23, 2019
Drug Discovery & Development
NOV 23, 2019
Drug Seeks To Target Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy
Ever imagined a world where you cannot shower alone, drive by yourself, and even go to work in fear of having the next seizure that can incapacitate you? U...
DEC 21, 2019
Drug Discovery & Development
DEC 21, 2019
Magic Mushrooms Pass First Clinical Trial Against Depression
With the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac increasingly coming under question, the search for new pharmaceutical treatment...
DEC 23, 2019
Cell & Molecular Biology
DEC 23, 2019
An Antioxidant Found in Green Tea Can Fight Tuberculosis
In 2018, around ten million people around the globe were sickened by tuberculosis (TB) and about 1.5 million people were killed by tuberculosis....
JAN 21, 2020
Cannabis Sciences
JAN 21, 2020
Medical Marijuana Ineffective for Long Term Pain Management
Medicinal cannabis may not as effective as once thought as a solution for sleep problems for those with chronic pain in the long run, according to new find...
JAN 18, 2020
Drug Discovery & Development
JAN 18, 2020
Drug Combo Targets Osteoarthritis
Individuals suffering from osteoarthritis often face challenges of limited treatment options mainly pain relievers or joint replacement surgery. However, s...
FEB 11, 2020
Cannabis Sciences
FEB 11, 2020
Traffic Light System Best Way to Label Cannabis Edibles
Cannabis products have become increasingly popular. Yet, as they are still relatively new to the market, research has found that most consumers don’t...
Loading Comments...