Epigenetics has a large say in blood formation.
Blood stem cells have the potential to turn into any type of blood cell, whether it is the oxygen-carrying red blood cells or the immune system's many types of white blood cells that help fight infection. How exactly is the fate of these stem cells regulated? Preliminary findings from research conducted by scientists from the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Hebrew University are starting to reshape the conventional understanding of the way blood stem cell fate decisions are controlled, thanks to a new technique for epigenetic analysis developed at these institutions. Understanding epigenetic mechanisms (environmental influences other than genetics) of cell fate could lead to the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of many diseases, including immunological disorders, anemia, leukemia, and many more. The study of epigenetics also lends strong support to findings that environmental factors and lifestyle play a more prominent role in shaping our destiny than previously realized.
The process of differentiation - in which a stem cell becomes a specialized mature cell - is controlled by a cascade of events in which specific genes are turned "on" and "off" in a highly regulated and accurate order. The instructions for this process are contained within the DNA itself in short regulatory sequences. These regulatory regions are normally in a "closed" state, masked by special proteins called histones to ensure against unwarranted activation. Therefore, to access and "activate" the instructions, this DNA mask needs to be "opened" by epigenetic modifications of the histones so it can be read by the necessary machinery.
In a paper published in Science, Dr. Ido Amit and David Lara-Astiaso of the Weizmann Institute's Department of Immunology, along with Prof. Nir Friedman and Assaf Weiner of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, charted - for the first time - histone dynamics during blood development. Thanks to the new technique for epigenetic profiling they developed, in which just a handful of cells - as few as 500 - can be sampled and analyzed accurately, they have identified the exact DNA sequences, as well as the various regulatory proteins, that are involved in regulating the process of blood stem cell fate.
This research has also yielded unexpected results: As many as 50% of these regulatory sequences are established and opened during intermediate stages of cell development. The meaning of the research is that epigenetics can be active at stages in which it had been thought that cell destiny was already set. "This changes our whole understanding of the process of blood stem cell fate decisions," says Lara-Astiaso, "suggesting that the process is more dynamic and flexible than previously thought."
Although this research was conducted on mouse blood stem cells, the scientists believe that the mechanism may hold true for other types of cells. "This research creates a lot of excitement in the field, as it sets the groundwork to study these regulatory elements in humans," says Weiner.
Discovering the exact regulatory DNA sequence controlling stem cell fate, as well as understanding its mechanism, holds promise for the future development of diagnostic tools, personalized medicine, potential therapeutic and nutritional interventions, and perhaps even regenerative medicine, in which committed cells could be reprogrammed to their full stem cell potential.
Dr. Ido Amit's research is supported by the M.D. Moross Institute for Cancer Research; the J&R Center for Scientific Research; the Jeanne and Joseph Nissim Foundation for Life Sciences Research; the Abramson Family Center for Young Scientists; the Wolfson Family Charitable Trust; the Abisch Frenkel Foundation for the Promotion of Life Sciences; the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; Sam Revusky, Canada; the Florence Blau, Morris Blau and Rose Peterson Fund; the estate of Ernst and Anni Deutsch; the estate of Irwin Mandel; and the estate of David Levinson. Dr. Amit is the incumbent of the Alan and Laraine Fischer Career Development Chair.