MAY 11, 2016 1:24 PM PDT

Genetic "Snitch" Uncovers Hiding Cancer Cells

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker
Normally cancerous cells do their best to hide from the immune system, but researchers from the National University of Singapore have discovered a molecular “snitch” that reveals the location of the cancerous cells to the immune system.
 
An enzyme called MUS81 cuts DNA in the nucleus so it migrates to the cytoplasm in cancerous cells. Doesn’t seem like much of a noble action? This measure actually prompts the immune system to recognize the cell as abnormal, followed by an aggressive mounting of an immune response to attack the cancerous cells. In this way, MUS81 reveals incognito cancer cells to the immune system.
 
MUS81 activity in a cancer cell

MUS81 works by interacting with other proteins to produce an endonuclease specific to the structure of DNA. An endonuclease is a type of restriction enzyme that cuts DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.
 
DNA in the cytoplasm alerts the immune system by producing interferon to activate circulating macrophages and T cells to kill the cancerous cells. In cancerous cells deficient of MUS81, the DNA was never cut, the immune system was never alerted to the presence of cancer, and the cancerous cells replicated unhindered by the body.
 
In vitro studies of different types of samples from live human tumors detected MUS81 activity in a variety of cancer types: prostate, breast, colorectal, and uterine cancers as well as leukemia and melanoma. Existing chemotherapies activate MUS81 to instigate a more aggressive immune response, and scientists from this study are hopeful that in combination with immunotherapy, enhanced MUS81 activation therapy could improve prognoses for a diverse population of people with various types of cancer.
 
The study was recently published in the journal Immunity.
 
 
Sources: National University of Singapore, GeneCards
About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
FEB 25, 2021
Immunology
Asthma Inhalers Slash Risk of COVID Hospitalization by 90 Percent
FEB 25, 2021
Asthma Inhalers Slash Risk of COVID Hospitalization by 90 Percent
For mild cases of COVID, doctors recommend the usual regimen for getting through a cold or flu: Staying hydrated and res ...
MAR 04, 2021
Immunology
Climate Change Tightens Its Grip on Hay Fever Sufferers
MAR 04, 2021
Climate Change Tightens Its Grip on Hay Fever Sufferers
There’s bad news for pollen allergy sufferers: New research has shown that climate change is making hay fever seas ...
MAR 22, 2021
Cell & Molecular Biology
Improving Cancer Immunotherapy While Reducing Autoimmune Side Effects
MAR 22, 2021
Improving Cancer Immunotherapy While Reducing Autoimmune Side Effects
Immunotherapy aims to make a patient's immune cells better at fighting cancer. The immune system has to be used carefull ...
MAY 13, 2021
Immunology
Tumors Hide From the Immune System by Masquerading as Baby Cells
MAY 13, 2021
Tumors Hide From the Immune System by Masquerading as Baby Cells
The immune system is programmed to recognize foreign bodies as potentially dangerous, promptly removing them before the ...
MAY 18, 2021
Immunology
Pizza's (Temporary) Effect on the Immune System
MAY 18, 2021
Pizza's (Temporary) Effect on the Immune System
Too much salt isn’t good for you—we know that it can contribute to elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular a ...
MAY 19, 2021
Drug Discovery & Development
Combination Immunotherapy Shows Promise in Treating HIV
MAY 19, 2021
Combination Immunotherapy Shows Promise in Treating HIV
  Researchers have found that a new combination immunotherapy, alongside antiretroviral therapy (ART), is effective ...
Loading Comments...