JUL 03, 2017 07:11 PM PDT

"Membrane Blebs" Render Pathogens Defenseless

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

The immune system recruits many different types of cells that specialize in ridding the body of pathogens like bacteria and viruses. These specialized cells usually work by either recognizing virally-infected cells or bacteria and then marking them for destruction. In a new study of “membrane blebs,” scientists reveal how small proteins lend a helping hand in the fight against pathogens.

The Bochum team: Dr Sergii Shydlovskyi, Dr Semra Ince and Prof Dr Christian Herrmann. Credit: Ruhr-Universität Bochum

What are membrane blebs?

Membrane blebs are small pouches produced by a cell to engulf and trap pathogens before delivering them to be destructed. In this way, cells contribute to the anti-viral or anti-bacteria attack in their own way. From Ruhr-University Bochum and a team of researchers, scientists looked inside the cell to figure out exactly how they were creating these membrane blebs.

The foundation of membrane bleb formation is all thanks to human guanylate-binding protein 1, or hGBP1, researchers found. These proteins “talk” to a molecule called GTP, which is capable of carrying energy for cells and their organelles to use for various tasks. In this case, the task is to trap viruses and bacteria so they can’t spread infection.

Next, hGBP1 uses energy via GTP to morph into a completely different structure. In their new form, the proteins are able to produce a “lipid anchor.” This product is called an anchor because it helps the newly-structured hGBP1 connect to other hGBP1 proteins, making a massive blob of proteins to become a membrane bleb, a vesicle to trap pathogens.

Pathogens are engulfed by and trapped in these vesicles, which transport the pathogens to cell organelles called lysosomes, which are capable of dissolving the bacteria and viruses for removal from the cell.

With the involvement of hGBP1 in the creation of membrane blebs now understood in more detail, researchers are more equipped to help the immune system protect the body from a wide array of dangerous pathogens. This study also leads to the asking of this question: can scientists create their own membrane blebs to fight infection?

The present study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Sources: Ruhr-University Bochum, Cell Death & Differentiation, Journal of Microscopy

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
DEC 11, 2018
Immunology
DEC 11, 2018
Autoimmunity Caused By Genetic Mutation
Research reveals a genetic mutation causes a protein binding site to alter its structure resulting in the development of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity...
DEC 19, 2018
Immunology
DEC 19, 2018
UTI Infection Becoming a Common Reoccurrence?
Researchers have shed new light on the connection between recurring urinary tract infections and the bacterial strain involved...
JAN 20, 2019
Drug Discovery
JAN 20, 2019
Combination Therapeutic Effective for Leishmaniasis and HIV Patients
In a study published in PLOS Neglected Diseases, a special combination therapy has been proven for efficacy in cases of coinfection with Visceral leishmani...
FEB 27, 2019
Immunology
FEB 27, 2019
Are They Really Killer-T Cells?
Scientists discovered a defect in immune cells known as "killer T cells" that explains their inability to destroy cancer tumors....
APR 15, 2019
Immunology
APR 15, 2019
Fecal Transplant improves ASD
Our understanding of the brain-gut connection is increasing by the day. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience gastrointestinal sy...
APR 18, 2019
Immunology
APR 18, 2019
The C-word. Michael Kinch's new book and the future of Cancer Treatment
The C-word. Dare we say it? Is a cure for cancer within reach?   Professor Michael Kinch https://publichealth.wustl.edu/scholars/michael-s-kinch/ of W...
Loading Comments...