MAY 23, 2018 11:44 PM PDT

Isolating The Source of Interleukin-25 In Common Respiratory Disorders

WRITTEN BY: Nouran Amin

The latest discovery from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania examined the mechanisms behind how the immune system responds to common sinus infections and asthma attacks.

 

This discovery may explain why affected individuals develop these issues in the first place with hopes to create an effective therapeutic strategy. More specifically, investigators isolated the source of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-25 (IL-25), which is an immune molecule that recruits a subset of inflammatory cells. Most commonly diagnosed respiratory disorders, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma, have been tied to elevated levels of IL-25, but the origins remain unknown.

 

Now, the source of IL-25 is believed to be a solitary chemosensory cell (SCC). In tissue samples that are non-inflamed, SCCs compose one percent of human cells lining the sinuses. But, when the researchers examined human nasal polyps, the number of SCCs that lining the polyp tissue have strikingly increased. Furthermore, when these cells were treated with inflammatory molecule Interleukin-13 (IL-13), which has also been involved in driving nasal polyp formation and asthma, it stimulated the expansion of the SCCs and increased the production of IL-25. "The more of these cells are present, the more likely the body will mount an inappropriate, exaggerated immune response due to elevated levels of IL-25. The body ends up in a vicious cycle, and so it never goes back to its baseline," explains the study's senior author Noam A. Cohen, MD, Ph.D., director of Rhinology Research at Penn.

 

Structure of Interleukin-13

The researchers also discovered that IL-25 is not relapsed in tissues, but relapsed in the mucus. This means that IL-25 has to come from the mucus before it reaches the tissue to exert its effects. Otherwise, IL-25 remaining in the mucus site will be excreted out of the body through sneezing. "We can measure levels of IL-25 in the mucus, so it's possible this can be an indicator of who will develop conditions like polyps or asthma," adds the study's lead author Michael Kohanski, MD, Ph.D. "Also, if we can bind up IL-25 before it reaches the tissue, we may be able to prevent the inflammation altogether." SCC's secreting IL-25 is fairly a normal process, and therefore it is not something that can be prevented. "Rather, we want to control the excessive concentrations found in polyps in a targeted way, perhaps with a nasal spray," explains Cohen.

https://b98584f181.site.internapcdn.net/tmpl/v5/img/1x1.gif

Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

About the Author
  • Nouran enjoys writing on various topics including science & medicine, global health, and conservation biology. She hopes through her writing she can make science more engaging and communicable to the general public.
You May Also Like
AUG 27, 2018
Immunology
AUG 27, 2018
Undiscovered Tunnels from Bone Marrow To Brain
Newly discovered tunnels connect bone marrow of the skull directly to lining of the brain to allow for quick access of immune cells to brain damaged tissues....
SEP 03, 2018
Immunology
SEP 03, 2018
Insulin Boosts the Immune System
Insulin boosts T cells to better fight infection and bolster the immune response....
SEP 04, 2018
Immunology
SEP 04, 2018
Development of Damaging Immune Cells in Tuberculosis Infection
Development of damaging white blood cells occurs during Tuberculosis infection leading to a maladaptive immune response....
SEP 26, 2018
Immunology
SEP 26, 2018
Is Good Bacteria Still Good?
A team of researchers looks at the effects of probiotics on the guts ability to reconstitute a microbiome after antibiotic treatment....
OCT 16, 2018
Drug Discovery
OCT 16, 2018
Potential Targeted Treatment for Crohn Disease
Emerging as a global disease with rates increasing the past 5 decades, Crohn’s disease (CD) is the chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Now,...
NOV 12, 2018
Health & Medicine
NOV 12, 2018
Researchers find that obesity has a paradoxical effect on Cancer
Cancer therapy works differently in different people. Understanding what effects the individual body's response to treatment will be crucial for the development...
Loading Comments...