NOV 10, 2015 02:32 PM PST

Making Sense of Viral Dark Matter

WRITTEN BY: Kerry Evans
When day-dreaming about your microbiome, don’t forget the viruses!  The “virome” doesn’t get much press because the viruses that live in and on us are difficult to isolate and identify.  Only small amounts of viral genetic material are recovered skin swabs and, as it turns out, most of the viruses in that sample haven’t even been “discovered” yet!  Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine ventured into the “viral dark matter” when they investigated the human skin double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virome.  
 
The human virome consists mostly of unidentified "dark matter".

The group sampled 8 body sites from 16 healthy people.  Sites were ranked as either sebaceous, intermittently moist, or moist, as well as occluded, intermittently occluded, or exposed.  Two samples were taken from each site.  One was used exclusively for virome sequencing, while the second was used to analyze the whole microbiome - bacteria, viruses, and fungi - for a side by side comparison.  To sequence the virome, researchers removed cellular contaminants from the samples and isolated and sequenced dsDNA from virus like particles (VLPs).

More than 90% of the viral sequences did not match anything in existing databases - the viral “dark matter”.  For those sequences that could be identified, the majority came from viruses in families Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae.  These viruses cause cutaneous warts and chicken pox, respectively.

The metagenome analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were Propionibacterium acnes, which causes acne, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus hominis.  Species from the genus Corynebacterium were also abundant, while the dominant fungal genus was Malassezia.  This type of yeast often causes dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis.  

In addition to human viruses, numerous sequences from bacteriophages were found.  The majority belonged to the order Caudovirales .  These phages all contain tails attached to their viral capsids. They also found evidence of bacteriophages specific for species of Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus.  

So, why should you care that bacteriophages are part of the skin microbiome? Oftentimes, these viruses introduce antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors into their bacterial hosts.  In fact, the group found 29 antibiotic resistance gene groups in the virome data.  The sequences were related to genes coding for antibiotic efflux pumps, as well as genes for resistance to antibiotics such as beta-lactamases and tetracycline.

Sources: mBio, Wikipedia
 
About the Author
  • Kerry received a doctorate in microbiology from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
You May Also Like
JUL 07, 2018
Microbiology
JUL 07, 2018
A New Target for an Effective Gonorrhea Treatment
Many pathogens are becoming antibiotic resistant; the microbe that causes the STD gonorrhea is no different....
AUG 13, 2018
Immunology
AUG 13, 2018
Silent Viruses Impact Microbe and Immune Cell Populations
Subclinical infections may alter the immune system and gut microbiota in the human host impacting how we respond to environmental stimuli like vaccines....
AUG 25, 2018
Videos
AUG 25, 2018
Bacterial Memories
Some bacteria have a way of remembering things like antibiotics, which helps them escape future encounters....
OCT 09, 2018
Drug Discovery
OCT 09, 2018
'Copper Antibiotic Peptide' Effective in Eradicating Tuberculosis
The bacterium responsible for Tuberculosis has found a way to avoid antibiotics by hiding inside the macrophages which are the specific immune cells that a...
OCT 11, 2018
Microbiology
OCT 11, 2018
New Vaccine Protects Against Lassa Fever and Rabies
In Africa, Lassa fever is a significant threat to public health. It is a member of the same family of viruses as Ebola....
OCT 12, 2018
Videos
OCT 12, 2018
Don't Mess With Microbes
Researchers demonstrate why antibiotics should not be used casually....
Loading Comments...