MAR 25, 2015 10:35 AM PDT

Air Pollution Has Disruptive Effect on Early Brain Development

WRITTEN BY: Will Hector
A mother's exposure to common air pollution-the type emitted from car exhaust, coal burning, and even charred foods-has been strongly linked with reductions in nearly the entire white matter surface of the left hemisphere.

The loss, according to a study being published online today by JAMA Psychiatry, is associated with slower processing of information during intelligence testing and more severe behavioral problems, including ADHD and aggression, as reported by Science Daily.
Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the developing brain
According to a story in Science Daily, researchers at the Institute for the Developing Mind at Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) and colleagues at Columbia University's Center for Children's Environmental Health have found a powerful relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and disturbances in parts of the brain that support information processing and behavioral control. Their study followed 40 children from before birth until 7 to 9 years of age as part of the Center's large community-based cohort.

Neurotoxic PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are ubiquitous in the environment, in the home and in the workplace. Emissions from motor vehicles, oil and coal burning for home heating or power generation, wildfires and agricultural burning, hazardous waste sites, tobacco smoke and charred foods are all sources of exposure. PAH readily crosses the placenta and affects an unborn child's brain; earlier animal studies showed that prenatal exposure impaired the development of behavior, learning and memory.

Scientists led by Bradley S. Peterson, MD, director of the Institute for the Developing Mind at The Saban Research Institute of CHLA, along with Virginia Rauh, ScD, and Frederica Perera, DrPH, PhD, from Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, conducted a study of minority youth to test the effects on brain structure of PAH exposure during the final trimester of pregnancy. They used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the brains of 40 children from a cohort of more than 600 mother-baby pairs from minority communities in New York City. The Columbia researchers had previously reported that exposure to airborne PAH during gestation in this cohort was associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disturbances, including development delay by age 3, reduced verbal IQ at age 5, and symptoms of anxiety and depression at age 7.

"This is the largest MRI study to date of how early life exposure to air pollutants, specifically PAH, affect the developing mind," said Peterson, who is also a professor of pediatrics and psychiatry at Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. "Our findings suggest that PAH are contributors to ADHD and other behavioral problems due to the pollutants' disruptive effects on early brain development."

Postnatal PAH exposure-measured at age 5-was found to contribute to additional disturbances in development of white matter in the dorsal prefrontal region of the brain, which is associated with concentration, reasoning, judgment, and problem-solving ability.

Peterson explained that the morphological features associated with ADHD symptoms in this community sample differed from those previously reported in youth with the disorder, suggesting that exposure to high levels of PAH may produce a specific subtype of ADHD.

Peterson explained that the study's findings were limited to a minority population with a high level of poverty and low educational attainment, and may therefore not generalize to other populations, although impoverished urban minority populations are disproportionately exposed to air pollutants. While this initial study size was also limited, the researchers are currently undertaking a much larger study in order to confirm and extend their findings.

"Our findings raise important concerns about the effects of air pollutants on brain development in children, and the consequences of those brain effects on cognition and behavior," says Peterson. "If confirmed, our findings have important public health implications, given the ubiquity of PAH in air pollutants in the general population."

(Source: Science Daily)
About the Author
  • Will Hector practices psychotherapy at Heart in Balance Counseling Center in Oakland, California. He has substantial training in Attachment Theory, Hakomi Body-Centered Psychotherapy, Psycho-Physical Therapy, and Formative Psychology. To learn more about his practice, click here: http://www.heartinbalancetherapy.com/will-hector.html
You May Also Like
APR 21, 2020
Immunology
A Nasal Vaccine Against Tau Tangles
APR 21, 2020
A Nasal Vaccine Against Tau Tangles
  One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of “tau tangles”. Tau is a ...
APR 30, 2020
Cardiology
Nighttime Blood Pressure Changes Linked to Cerebrovascular Disease and Impaired Cognition
APR 30, 2020
Nighttime Blood Pressure Changes Linked to Cerebrovascular Disease and Impaired Cognition
When most people go to sleep, their blood pressure decreases, or dips, compared to daytime values. However, for some, a ...
MAY 04, 2020
Neuroscience
Certain Gut Bacteria Improves Memory in Mice
MAY 04, 2020
Certain Gut Bacteria Improves Memory in Mice
Researchers from the US Department of Energy national laboratories have found that certain gut bacteria are able to impr ...
JUN 29, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
New Insight Into the Loss of Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease
JUN 29, 2020
New Insight Into the Loss of Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease
Researchers have been working to understand Alzheimer's disease for over 100 years. A major feature of the disease is th ...
JUL 02, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
The Intricate Movements of a Critical Receptor are Revealed
JUL 02, 2020
The Intricate Movements of a Critical Receptor are Revealed
Scientists have now learned more about a critical protein in the brain called the NMDA receptor, tracking every atom as ...
JUL 11, 2020
Genetics & Genomics
Cocaine Changes Gene Expression in a Specific Part of the Brain
JUL 11, 2020
Cocaine Changes Gene Expression in a Specific Part of the Brain
Scientists have begun to examine how cocaine exposure alters gene expression in a specific region of the brain, and the ...
Loading Comments...