MENU

Growth Hormone and the Adult Skeleton

Sponsored by: DiaSorin
Speaker

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by anterior pituitary somatotroph cells in a pulsatile manner throughout life. Growth hormone secretion is under control by several hypothalamic peptides (stimulated by growth hormone releasing hormone and gastric ghrelin; suppressed by hypothalamic somatostatin). Growth hormone exerts a wide variety of actions in humans, either directly or indirectly by stimulating the synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In turn, IGF-1 acts upon both distant tissues (“endocrine effects”) and local tissues (“paracrine effects”) to mediate several GH actions.  In addition, IGF-1 inhibits GH secretion via a negative feedback loop action exerted upon the hypothalamus and pituitary. 

Both GH and IGF-1 have anabolic effects, while GH alone has prominent lipolytic effects. In addition, GH and IGF-1 have opposing effects on glucose homeostasis. In adults, the diagnosis of GH deficiency generally requires GH stimulation testing. However, serum IGF-1 levels can also be of diagnostic significance in the evaluation of GH deficiency in adults. The diagnosis of GH excess in adults (acromegaly) primarily relies on serum IGF-1 levels and GH suppression testing (oral glucose tolerance test).

In the skeleton, GH and IGF-1 activate both bone formation and bone resorption, culminating in increased bone turnover. In addition to growth-promoting effects in children and adolescents, mediated via effects on epiphyseal growth plates, GH and IGF-1 have an important physiologic role in the adult skeleton. Growth hormone deficiency in adults is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. Growth hormone excess is associated with increased vertebral fracture risk even though bone mineral density is preserved in these patients in the absence of hypogonadism. Further research is needed in order to fully elucidate the effects of GH deficiency or excess on the adult skeleton and the consequences of therapies aiming at restoring GH physiology in patients with these conditions.

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the physiology of growth hormone secretion and the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency or excess in adults.
  • Review the consequences of growth hormone deficiency on the adult skeleton.
  • Describe the sequelae of growth hormone excess on the adult skeleton.

Show Resources
You May Also Like
FEB 15, 2023 7:00 AM PST
FEB 15, 2023 7:00 AM PST
Date: February 15, 2023 Time: 7:00am (PST), 10:00pm (EST), 4:00pm (CET) While not all microscopy samples can fluoresce, all can scatter light, and this scattered light can be imaged. This ha...
OCT 13, 2022 9:00 AM +08
OCT 13, 2022 9:00 AM +08
First Broadcast: Date: October 12, 2022 Time: 8:00am PDT, 11:00am EDT Second Broadcast: Date: October 12, 2022 Time: 9:00am SGT The new Embedded CryoSPARC Live, now fully integrated with t...
AUG 24, 2022 7:00 AM PDT
AUG 24, 2022 7:00 AM PDT
Date: August 24, 2022 Time: 7:00am (PDT), 10:00pm (EDT), 4:00pm (CEST) Light field microscopy was first introduced in 2006, and allows users to capture the 4D light field within the microsco...
AUG 10, 2022 10:00 AM PDT
AUG 10, 2022 10:00 AM PDT
Date: August 10, 2022 Time: 10:00am PDT, 1:00pm EDT The global pandemic has increased focus and scrutiny on molecular diagnostic assay development, resulting in a need for assays that provid...
NOV 09, 2022 8:00 AM PST
C.E. CREDITS
NOV 09, 2022 8:00 AM PST
Date: November 09, 2022 Time: 8:00am (PST), 11:00am (EST), 5:00pm (CET) The field of cell and gene therapy is rapidly growing. In particular, the use of lentiviruses in CAR-T applications is...
SEP 28, 2022 9:00 AM PDT
SEP 28, 2022 9:00 AM PDT
Date: September 28, 2022 Time: 9:00am (PDT), 12:00pm (EDT), 6:00pm (CEST) While COVID-19 continues to be the most pressing diagnostic focus for clinical laboratories, HIV remains a serious g...

Growth Hormone and the Adult Skeleton

Sponsored by: DiaSorin


Show Resources
Loading Comments...
Show Resources