Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and a major health issue in the US and Worldwide. Until recently, prostate cancer was not felt to be a hereditary disease. However, up to 13% of men who present with de novo metastatic disease have a hereditary gene defect and men with a family history are also at risk for hereditary disease. The most common genes linked to hereditary prostate cancer include BRCA2, BRCA2, ATM, and CHEK2. In addition to hereditary genes, somatic mutations are common in advanced and castrate resistant disease and assessment in tumor and metastatic tissue is beginning to dictate novel therapeutics. Measurement of tumor derived messenger RNA expression panels is the basis of a number of commercially available molecular biomarker tests including Prolaris, Oncotype GPS, and Decipher. This presentation will highlight hereditary and somatic tumor testing and current practical considerations for clinical practice.