Chronic Renal Dysfunction (CKD) and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) are increasing in prevalence today and can be escalated due to diseases such as diabetes, surgical procedures as well as nephrotoxic treatments. Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents an acute decline in renal function that leads to structural changes. AKI is associated with increased mortality, length of hospital stay and costs . This unfavorable outcome might be tied to the late detection of AKI when the elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) is used. No currently available biomarkers have been demonstrated to meet clinical needs for prediction, diagnosis and management.
ProEnkephalin (PENK) is an endogenous opioid hormone that has been demonstrated to be released in proportion to increasing renal distress and dysfunction. Blood levels of PENK have been assessed now in thousands of patients and in multiple studies of both CKD and AKI. This data will be reviewed by Dr. Alan Maisel, a leader in the field of novel protein biomarkers.
Characterize the clinical challenge of chronic and acute kidney injury (AKI) and the limitations for predicting, diagnosing and managing AKI
Review ProEnkephalin, its function and role as an endogenous opioid hormone, and its relationship to renal function
Review recently published data in European and North American cohorts examining ProEnkephalin levels in predicting outcomes in chronic renal function and acute kidney injury.