One of the ultimate goals in Regenerative Medicine is the generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directly from somatic cells obtained from patients. Although major findings in the definition of in vitro differentiation protocols allowing for the derivation of several somatic cell lineages has been reported progresses on obtaining certain defined populations has faced major obstacles. One of the major problems associated with the in vitro differentiation arises in tissues presenting complex tridimensional (3D) structures, such as the case of cardiac, hepatic or renal lineages. Lately, it has been described that complex differentiation strategies might benefit from the establishment of 3D culture systems.
The possibility to develop 3D dimensional self-organized tissues, so called organoids, has opened new venues in the generation of protocols dictating human PSCs differentiation. As tissue-derived organoids are compromised by multiple cell types recapitulating part of organ structure and function the possibilities to understand human development are facilitating the development of massive platforms for drug screening and personalized medicine. In this talk, we will summarize part of our recent work in heart and kidney differentiation using hPSCs highlighting potential applications when combined with organ decellularization and 3D bioprinting.