DEC 11, 2018 03:00 PM PST

FDA approves two new drugs for cancers with specific genetic mutations

Last month the FDA approved two new drugs for cancer, both drugs target cancers with specific genetic mutations which made geneticists and oncologists optimistic on the future of cancer therapy.

The first drug is Vitrakvi (larotrectinib) which treats adults and pediatric patients whose cancers have a specific genetic mutation (biomarker).

This drug belongs to a new class of cancer drugs that are called “Tissue Agnostic” which are used to treat cancers based on a common biomarker across different types of cancers rather than the location of the tumor in the body, it is the second drug of this type to be approved by the FDA.

Vitrakvi will be used to treat adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have a neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusion without acquired resistance mutation. NTRK is a gene family that encodes tropomyosin receptor kinases (Trk) which can be fused to other genes abnormally leading to increased growth signals that lead to cancer, these fusions are rare but can occur in different types of cancers like lung, thyroid, and salivary gland cancers.

Types of cancers that may have TRK fusions Credit: LoxoOncologyTrials

For patients to be eligible for Vitrakvi treatment, their tumors must be metastatic, cannot be surgically removed and no other treatment is available, or the tumor progressed after treatment.

The FDA approved Vitrakvi based on three clinical trials of 55 pediatric and adult patients that showed 75% overall response rate lasting from 6 months to one year.

Reported side effects include dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and increased ALT & AST liver enzymes in the blood, so doctors are advised to monitor patients levels of ALT & AST enzymes during the first month of treatment. Vitrakvi cannot be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding as it harms the fetus or newborn baby.

The second drug approved is Xospata (gilteritinib) which is indicated for the treatment of adult patients who have relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3 mutation. FLT3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with an essential role in hematopoietic stem cell proliferation.

“Approximately 25 to 30 percent of patients with AML have a mutation in the FLT3 gene. These mutations are associated with a particularly aggressive form of the disease and a higher risk of relapse,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Xospata targets this gene and is the first drug to be approved that can be used alone in treating patients with AML having FLT3 mutation who have relapsed or who do not respond to initial treatment.”

Xospata was approved based on a clinical trial of 138 patients with relapsed or refractory AML with FLT3 mutation, 21% of patients showed complete remission ( no evidence of disease), and 31% out of the patients who required a blood or platelets transfusion became transfusion free for at least 56 days.

Some of the side effects reported were muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and elevated liver enzymes. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take Xospata as it may cause harm to the fetus or the newborn baby.

Another drug for AML was also approved by the FDA recently “Daurismo (glasdegib)” for AML patients who are 75 years of age or older or who have chronic diseases.

Sources: WHNT news via FDA, FDA

About the Author
  • A master student in Biochemistry and Molecular biology with experience in Education and Research. I am passionate about scientific research and passing my knowledge to others to help them learn about the latest in science by teaching, writing and volunteering in scientific events.
You May Also Like
OCT 29, 2018
Immunology
OCT 29, 2018
Escape of the Tumor Cell
Tumor cells in breast cancer have proven to evade the immune responses utilizing actin cytoskeleton...
JAN 03, 2019
Cancer
JAN 03, 2019
Does eating burnt toast cause cancer?
No one like the taste of burnt toast but in our busy mornings, it could be the only available option for breakfast. Lately, there has been some talk about how burnt toast can cause cancer but...
DEC 31, 2018
Cancer
DEC 31, 2018
Could increasing melanin in the skin protect against melanoma?
Our skin color is determined by the amount and kind of a specific pigment in our skin called melanin which is produced by cells in our epidermis called melanocytes. Melanin does not only help...
DEC 31, 2018
Cell & Molecular Biology
DEC 31, 2018
Insight Into How Lifestyle Choices Impact Breast Cancer
Research has established that the development of cancer in connected to lifestyle choices like poor diet and low exercise levels....
JAN 12, 2019
Cardiology
JAN 12, 2019
Benefit Your Heart With Adequate Fiber Intake
We’ve all heard that getting more fiber is good for a healthier gut. Experts in nutrition and the latest national dietary guidelines point to fiber a...
FEB 12, 2019
Cancer
FEB 12, 2019
Humans and Man's Best Friend Share Genetic Mutations in Rare Form of Melanoma
A recent study compared the cancer genomes of a rare form of melanoma (mucosal melanoma) in humans, dogs, and horses in order to see how this type of cance...
Loading Comments...