JAN 03, 2017 11:54 AM PST

Key Proteins in Zika Infection are Revealed

WRITTEN BY: Carmen Leitch

Zika busted out of obscurity with a vengeance last year. Very little was known about the virus when it began afflicting people and causing serious neurological disorders in infants born to infected mothers. Like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. How the virus was causing these problems, or even which of its proteins were pathogenic, was a complete unknown, until now. Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have found seven proteins in the virus that could be to blame for the health issues Zika causes. Their findings have been reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"The mechanism of this virus has been a real mystery," commented the lead researcher of the report, Richard Zhao, a Professor of Pathology at UM SOM. "These results give us crucial insight into how Zika affects cells. We now have some really valuable clues for future research." The virus is explained in the video above.

Zhao and his team took advantage of the fission yeast model for their work. Originally used in the production of beer, especially in its home continent of Africa, it has been used by many researchers in order to learn more about cellular functions and mechanisms. It has also been adopted as a common way to determine the effects of a pathogen on cells.

Zhao is quite familiar with fission yeast; he is a pioneer in the use of fission yeast in HIV research and the study of Yellow Barley Dwarf virus, which affects plants worldwide, causing billions of dollars in damage to the world food supply every year.

Zika has afflicted hundreds of thousands of people around the planet, but primarily in the Americas. 38,000 Zika cases have been reported in the United States and its territories, with most occurring in Puerto Rico. Zhao saw that Zika was becoming a health crisis, and sprang into action. "With Zika we are in a race against time," he says. "I asked myself what I can do to help. I have this unique way of dissecting the genome. So I started on this."

The investigators isolated each of the 14 viral proteins and small peptides from the remainder of the Zika virus. Yeast cells were then exposed to each one of the proteins, and the effects on the cells were observed. The researchers found that seven of the 14 proteins caused some kind of harm or dysfunction to the cells like damage, growth inhibition, or cell death.

 ZIKV proteins induce cell death and cellular oxidative stress. ZIKV-induced cell death was measured 48 h after GI by the yeast live/dead assay which was measured by FUN-1 staining 40-45 h after GI. / Credit: PNAS 2016 Li et al

The scientists plan to continue their work; next they want to learn more about how these proteins function in humans. It’s possible that they work in concert, or some may be more deleterious than others. Zhao and colleagues are currently studying how the virus interacts with rat and human cells in culture.

Sources: AAAS/Eurekalert! via UMSOM, PNAS

About the Author
  • Experienced research scientist and technical expert with authorships on 28 peer-reviewed publications, traveler to over 60 countries, published photographer and internationally-exhibited painter, volunteer trained in disaster-response, CPR and DV counseling.
You May Also Like
MAR 11, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
MAR 11, 2020
Generating Human Tissues in Space
Researchers from the University of Zurich are studying how weightlessness impacts the production of human tissue.
MAR 15, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
MAR 15, 2020
Immune Cells Can Attack Tumors Remotely
The body's immune system is able to identify the cancerous cells of a tumor and launch an attack against them.
APR 03, 2020
Genetics & Genomics
APR 03, 2020
Physical Forces Can Change How Genes Are Expressed
Less than a millisecond after a cell is stretched out, genes are activated, which will result in the production of prote ...
APR 23, 2020
Cardiology
APR 23, 2020
Arteries Respond in Different Ways in Females and Males
Exploring Arterial Smooth Muscle Kv7 Potassium Channel Function using Patch Clamp Electrophysiology and Pressure Myograp ...
MAY 10, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
MAY 10, 2020
RNA Structure Informs RNA Function
Proteins carry out many of an organism's critical functions, and they are coded for by genes. To make a protein from ...
MAY 26, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
MAY 26, 2020
The Lasting Glow of Tube Worm Slime
Tube worms are ancient creatures that can be found near hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. Their bioluminescence apears ...
Loading Comments...