OCT 04, 2017 8:22 AM PDT

How to Prevent Collateral Damage in the Immune System

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

The immune response needs to be just right: not too much, or an autoimmune disease will develop; not too little, or viruses and bacteria will swarm the body and wreak havoc. The body has regulatory mechanisms in place to maintain this delicate balance, and University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) scientists, in a new Nature Immunology study, recently examined the intricate details.

A transmission electron micrograph, negative stain image of the influenza A virus. Credit: CDC

Using a mice model of influenza infection, researchers mapped out the regulatory mechanisms employed by the immune system to prevent autoimmune reactions leading to diseases like multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

First, they saw that T follicular regulatory cells (TFRs) stand out against other regulatory T cells, called Tregs; they develop during the later stages of the immune response to influenza infection as opposed to during the beginning of the infection.

However, there’s a purpose for this delayed development.

As the immune response to influenza begins, levels of a signaling molecule called interleukin-2 (IL2) start to increase, which triggers the production of Tregs. These cells are charged with the duty of making sure the immune response doesn’t go overboard; once the virus is cleared out, the immune system eases up.

At the same time, IL2 signaling prevents TFR cells from developing during the peak of the immune response. But by the end of the battle versus the influenza virus, Tregs suppress activity of IL2 signaling and transform into TFR cells.

TFR cells then travel to the follicles of the lymph nodes, also the place where B cells produce antibodies which replicate and, sometimes, mutate. However, TFR cells seemed to serve the purpose of preventing the collection of B cell variants that were producing autoreactive antibodies. TFR cells left B cells producing influenza-targeting antibodies alone.

When researchers removed TFR cells from the situation, there was nothing standing in the way of misguided B cells creating antibodies that target the body’s own cells.

TFR cells were first identified in 2011 as a unique subset of Tregs, and they’ve been found to suppress T follicular helper cells in addition to B cells. T follicular helper cells join B cells in promoting antibody production. UAB’s André Ballesteros-Tato, PhD, recognizes the role of TFR cells as an important part of understanding how the immune system is regulated: "this research gives us clues of what to look for when we look at how autoimmune disease develops.”

Sources: Trends in Immunology (1, 2), University of Alabama at Birmingham

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
SEP 27, 2019
Drug Discovery & Development
SEP 27, 2019
AI Exponentially Accelerates Drug Development
Research and development for new drugs is both an expensive and lengthy process, often lasting years, if not decades. With the development of artificial in...
OCT 13, 2019
Microbiology
OCT 13, 2019
Molecule in Human Breast Milk Can Fight Microbial Pathogens
Now a team of scientists has found a molecule in human breast milk that may reduce the risk of illness and disease....
OCT 31, 2019
Cancer
OCT 31, 2019
Unpacking lactate's role in the Warburg effect
In a recent issue of Nature, the findings of one study made a particularly big splash: how and why cancer cells use energy differently than healthy cells. ...
DEC 11, 2019
Drug Discovery & Development
DEC 11, 2019
Drug To Treat Ulcerative Colitis
Biomedical researchers at the University of California—Riverside, found that the therapeutic drug ‘tofacitinib’ used in treating autoimmu...
JAN 14, 2020
Clinical & Molecular DX
JAN 14, 2020
Can I eat this donut? A quick test for celiac disease.
Genetic testing revealed that our ancestors have been eating wheat, rye, spelt and barley for over 8,000 years. Today, gluten, a protein found within these...
FEB 13, 2020
Immunology
FEB 13, 2020
Protein that suppresses immune system linked to lupus
  A study published in Human Immunology has described, for the first time, a link between an immunosuppressive protein on the surface of T cells and t...
Loading Comments...