OCT 04, 2017 8:22 AM PDT

How to Prevent Collateral Damage in the Immune System

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

The immune response needs to be just right: not too much, or an autoimmune disease will develop; not too little, or viruses and bacteria will swarm the body and wreak havoc. The body has regulatory mechanisms in place to maintain this delicate balance, and University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) scientists, in a new Nature Immunology study, recently examined the intricate details.

A transmission electron micrograph, negative stain image of the influenza A virus. Credit: CDC

Using a mice model of influenza infection, researchers mapped out the regulatory mechanisms employed by the immune system to prevent autoimmune reactions leading to diseases like multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

First, they saw that T follicular regulatory cells (TFRs) stand out against other regulatory T cells, called Tregs; they develop during the later stages of the immune response to influenza infection as opposed to during the beginning of the infection.

However, there’s a purpose for this delayed development.

As the immune response to influenza begins, levels of a signaling molecule called interleukin-2 (IL2) start to increase, which triggers the production of Tregs. These cells are charged with the duty of making sure the immune response doesn’t go overboard; once the virus is cleared out, the immune system eases up.

At the same time, IL2 signaling prevents TFR cells from developing during the peak of the immune response. But by the end of the battle versus the influenza virus, Tregs suppress activity of IL2 signaling and transform into TFR cells.

TFR cells then travel to the follicles of the lymph nodes, also the place where B cells produce antibodies which replicate and, sometimes, mutate. However, TFR cells seemed to serve the purpose of preventing the collection of B cell variants that were producing autoreactive antibodies. TFR cells left B cells producing influenza-targeting antibodies alone.

When researchers removed TFR cells from the situation, there was nothing standing in the way of misguided B cells creating antibodies that target the body’s own cells.

TFR cells were first identified in 2011 as a unique subset of Tregs, and they’ve been found to suppress T follicular helper cells in addition to B cells. T follicular helper cells join B cells in promoting antibody production. UAB’s André Ballesteros-Tato, PhD, recognizes the role of TFR cells as an important part of understanding how the immune system is regulated: "this research gives us clues of what to look for when we look at how autoimmune disease develops.”

Sources: Trends in Immunology (1, 2), University of Alabama at Birmingham

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
AUG 18, 2021
Health & Medicine
Brain-Gut Connection in Brain Disorders Potentially Explained
AUG 18, 2021
Brain-Gut Connection in Brain Disorders Potentially Explained
Gut microbes are believed to influence brain disorders, potentially through the vagus nerve, as seen in experimental and ...
AUG 25, 2021
Cell & Molecular Biology
Sino Biological's Listing on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange
AUG 25, 2021
Sino Biological's Listing on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange
China, August 16, 2021 - Sino Biological, Inc. (“Sino Biological” or the “Company”), a biot ...
AUG 31, 2021
Immunology
Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19 Doesn't Work
AUG 31, 2021
Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19 Doesn't Work
After encountering an infectious agent, the immune system begins churning out antibodies—Y-shaped warriors that ne ...
SEP 21, 2021
Immunology
1 in 5 Hospitalized COVID Patients Develop Self-Destructive Antibodies
SEP 21, 2021
1 in 5 Hospitalized COVID Patients Develop Self-Destructive Antibodies
One in five hospitalized COVID-19 patients go on to develop autoantibodies—immune molecules that mistakenly target ...
SEP 28, 2021
Immunology
Caught on Tape: Immune Cells Migrating From the Gut to the Brain
SEP 28, 2021
Caught on Tape: Immune Cells Migrating From the Gut to the Brain
A team of immunologists has taken the first glimpse at a never-before-seen migratory path of immune cells from the gut a ...
OCT 18, 2021
Cancer
The History of Immunotherapy: Toxins, Targets & T Cells
OCT 18, 2021
The History of Immunotherapy: Toxins, Targets & T Cells
Cancer immunotherapy, a treatment that directly enhances a patient’s immune system, is typically perceived as a mo ...
Loading Comments...