OCT 04, 2017 08:22 AM PDT

How to Prevent Collateral Damage in the Immune System

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

The immune response needs to be just right: not too much, or an autoimmune disease will develop; not too little, or viruses and bacteria will swarm the body and wreak havoc. The body has regulatory mechanisms in place to maintain this delicate balance, and University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) scientists, in a new Nature Immunology study, recently examined the intricate details.

A transmission electron micrograph, negative stain image of the influenza A virus. Credit: CDC

Using a mice model of influenza infection, researchers mapped out the regulatory mechanisms employed by the immune system to prevent autoimmune reactions leading to diseases like multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

First, they saw that T follicular regulatory cells (TFRs) stand out against other regulatory T cells, called Tregs; they develop during the later stages of the immune response to influenza infection as opposed to during the beginning of the infection.

However, there’s a purpose for this delayed development.

As the immune response to influenza begins, levels of a signaling molecule called interleukin-2 (IL2) start to increase, which triggers the production of Tregs. These cells are charged with the duty of making sure the immune response doesn’t go overboard; once the virus is cleared out, the immune system eases up.

At the same time, IL2 signaling prevents TFR cells from developing during the peak of the immune response. But by the end of the battle versus the influenza virus, Tregs suppress activity of IL2 signaling and transform into TFR cells.

TFR cells then travel to the follicles of the lymph nodes, also the place where B cells produce antibodies which replicate and, sometimes, mutate. However, TFR cells seemed to serve the purpose of preventing the collection of B cell variants that were producing autoreactive antibodies. TFR cells left B cells producing influenza-targeting antibodies alone.

When researchers removed TFR cells from the situation, there was nothing standing in the way of misguided B cells creating antibodies that target the body’s own cells.

TFR cells were first identified in 2011 as a unique subset of Tregs, and they’ve been found to suppress T follicular helper cells in addition to B cells. T follicular helper cells join B cells in promoting antibody production. UAB’s André Ballesteros-Tato, PhD, recognizes the role of TFR cells as an important part of understanding how the immune system is regulated: "this research gives us clues of what to look for when we look at how autoimmune disease develops.”

Sources: Trends in Immunology (1, 2), University of Alabama at Birmingham

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
NOV 17, 2019
Health & Medicine
NOV 17, 2019
Drug-resistant Candida Auris is Spreading
A drug-resistant fungal yeast, Candida auris, is spreading throughout hospitals worldwide. Deemed “an urgent threat” by the Center for Disease...
NOV 17, 2019
Cannabis Sciences
NOV 17, 2019
Can you be Allergic to Cannabis?
Pollen allergies are very common. As cannabis flowers produce, it is also possible to be allergic to cannabis. Here's what to look out for....
NOV 17, 2019
NOV 17, 2019
How a Parasitic Amoeba Evades the Immune System
A parasitic amoeba that causes a gut disease can nibble on host cells and use their proteins. (Image courtesy UC Davis/Hannah Miller)...
NOV 17, 2019
Drug Discovery & Development
NOV 17, 2019
Researchers Can Now Reverse Skin Cancer
Ten years ago, just 5% of people with advanced melanoma (skin cancer) lived more than five years after being diagnosed. Now however, researchers from the I...
NOV 17, 2019
NOV 17, 2019
Coffee Bean Extracts for Fat-induced Inflammation
One man’s coffee trash is another man’s solution for addressing chronic inflammation. A new Food and Chemical Toxicology study illustrates the ...
NOV 17, 2019
NOV 17, 2019
Suicidal Mitochondria Responsible for ALS
Scientists at Northwestern University have dicovered a new mechanism in the brain that may be responsable for the early stages of neurodegeneration seen in...
Loading Comments...