FEB 13, 2018 12:13 PM PST

Bed Bugs: More Than Just A Nuisance

WRITTEN BY: Kara Marker

As if bed bugs weren’t irritating enough, researchers have now associated the pests with dangerously high levels of histamine. In a new study from North Carolina State University (NCSU), scientists compared apartment homes that were bed bug-free versus homes infested with bed bugs - before and after professional heat treatment.

Bed bugs emit substantial and persistent amounts of histamine in infested homes. Credit: Matt Bertone, NC State University

Bed bugs, also known as Cimex lectularius feed on blood like mosquitoes, causing irritating bumps. But unlike mosquitoes, no evidence links the spread of disease to bed bugs. However, bed bug infestations are considered to be a public health pest by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Histamine is a chemical released by the immune system that promotes inflammation, often in response to a pathogenic invasion or “cellular repair work.” Histamine is also released as part of an allergic reactions to food, pollen, or mold. Because of its connections to allergies, histamine is also used in skin and respiratory allergy tests as a positive control.

How are bed bugs and histamines related? Researchers found that bed bugs release histamine in their feces, and bed bugs sense histamine as a sign of a good place to set up shop (like a mattress).

In the new study, researchers compared histamine levels in homes in a Raleigh apartment complex, with and without bed bug infestation. They collected household dust and also examined the effect of treatment and time on histamine levels. Researchers found that histamine levels were 20 time higher in homes infested with bed bugs than in bed bug-free homes. Plus, histamine levels did not decrease significantly in three months after professional heat treatment.

"A combination of heat treatment to eradicate bed bugs and rigorous cleaning to eliminate some of the household dust could be a way to reduce these histamine levels; we'll do future testing to bear that out," explained NCSU’s Zachary DeVries. "We'll also further investigate the effects of histamine in an indoor environment, including chronic exposure to histamine at low levels."

The present study was published in the journal PLoS One.

Sources: EPA, North Carolina State University

About the Author
  • I am a scientific journalist and enthusiast, especially in the realm of biomedicine. I am passionate about conveying the truth in scientific phenomena and subsequently improving health and public awareness. Sometimes scientific research needs a translator to effectively communicate the scientific jargon present in significant findings. I plan to be that translating communicator, and I hope to decrease the spread of misrepresented scientific phenomena! Check out my science blog: ScienceKara.com.
You May Also Like
FEB 02, 2021
Immunology
Tumors Under Seige by Cancer-Killing Salmonella
FEB 02, 2021
Tumors Under Seige by Cancer-Killing Salmonella
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped bacteria, often given a bad rap thanks to its association with food poisoning. But c ...
APR 16, 2021
Microbiology
A New Kind of COVID-19 Vaccine
APR 16, 2021
A New Kind of COVID-19 Vaccine
The current COVID-19 vaccines by Pfizer/BioNTech and Modern are based on messenger RNA, which cells use to make proteins ...
MAY 18, 2021
Immunology
Pizza's (Temporary) Effect on the Immune System
MAY 18, 2021
Pizza's (Temporary) Effect on the Immune System
Too much salt isn’t good for you—we know that it can contribute to elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular a ...
MAY 23, 2021
Health & Medicine
Paronychia: What Is It and How Do You Treat It?
MAY 23, 2021
Paronychia: What Is It and How Do You Treat It?
It's one of the most common infections of the hand that nail biters are all too familiar with. Better known as a han ...
JUN 10, 2021
Immunology
Decoding the Immune System's Language
JUN 10, 2021
Decoding the Immune System's Language
Scientists at UCLA have decoded the “vocabulary” of immune cells—six distinct signals used as flares t ...
JUN 16, 2021
Immunology
Researchers Identify a Novel COVID Therapeutic Target and Mortality Predictor
JUN 16, 2021
Researchers Identify a Novel COVID Therapeutic Target and Mortality Predictor
Researchers at King’s College London have discovered a new antiviral target to combat COVID-19: the galectin-3-bin ...
Loading Comments...