APR 13, 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Fairness, Sharing Can Be Turned On in Brain

WRITTEN BY: Will Hector
Greed got you down? Don't fret--growing evidence of how the brain is wired for relationality and prosocial behavior was supported in a study by UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco researchers.

The researchers improved sharing behavior with a neurochemical change using tolcapone, a drug that prolongs the effects of dopamine, as the catalyst. The study found that giving the drug, which supports reward and motivation in the prefrontal cortex, caused a greater willingness to engage in prosocial behaviors such as ensuring that resources are divided more equally.
Study finds that prolonging dopamine's effects in the brain causes people to be more sensitive to inequality.
The researchers also say that further study on the intereaction may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between altered dopamine-brain mechanisms and mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia or addiction, and potentially light the way to possible diagnostic tools or treatments for these disorders.

"Our study shows how studying basic scientific questions about human nature can, in fact, provide important insights into diagnosis and treatment of social dysfunctions," said Ming Hsu, a co-principal investigator and assistant professor at UC Berkeley, in a UC Berkeley Press Release written by Thomas Levy that goes on to report:

"Our hope is that medications targeting social function may someday be used to treat these disabling conditions," said Andrew Kayser, a co-principal investigator on the study, an assistant professor of neurology at UC San Francisco and a researcher in the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute at UC Berkeley.

In the study, published in the journal Current Biology, participants on two separate visits received a pill containing either a placebo or tolcapone, a drug that prolongs the effects of dopamine. Participants then played a simple economic game in which they divided money between themselves and an anonymous recipient. After receiving tolcapone, participants divided the money with the strangers in a fairer, more egalitarian way than after receiving the placebo.

"We typically think of fair-mindedness as a stable characteristic, part of one's personality," said Hsu. "Our study doesn't reject this notion, but it does show how that trait can be systematically affected by targeting specific neurochemical pathways in the human brain."

In this double-blind study of 35 participants, including 18 women, neither participants nor study staff members knew which pills contained the placebo or tolcapone, an FDA-approved drug used to treat people with Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurological disorder affecting movement and muscle control.

Computational modeling showed Hsu and his colleagues that under tolcapone's influence, game players were more sensitive to and less tolerant of social inequity, the perceived relative economic gap between a study participant and a stranger.

By connecting to previous studies showing that economic inequity is evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, a core area of the brain that dopamine affects, this study brings researchers closer to pinpointing how prosocial behaviors such as fairness are initiated in the brain.

"We have taken an important step toward learning how our aversion to inequity is influenced by our brain chemistry," said the study's first author, Ignacio Sáez, a postdoctoral researcher at the Haas School of Business. "Studies in the past decade have shed light on the neural circuits that govern how we behave in social situations. What we show here is one brain ‘switch' we can affect."

Follow Will Hector: @WriteCompassion

(Sources: UC Berkeley; Neuroscience News)
About the Author
  • Will Hector practices psychotherapy at Heart in Balance Counseling Center in Oakland, California. He has substantial training in Attachment Theory, Hakomi Body-Centered Psychotherapy, Psycho-Physical Therapy, and Formative Psychology. To learn more about his practice, click here: http://www.heartinbalancetherapy.com/will-hector.html
You May Also Like
OCT 29, 2020
Clinical & Molecular DX
Skin Deep: A Novel Test for Parkinson's
OCT 29, 2020
Skin Deep: A Novel Test for Parkinson's
In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is chronic degeneration of the central nervous system, particularly in the regi ...
NOV 01, 2020
Microbiology
SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts the Blood Brain Barrier
NOV 01, 2020
SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts the Blood Brain Barrier
SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 has to get into cells to cause infection. It does so with a spike protein on its surfa ...
DEC 03, 2020
Drug Discovery & Development
Oregon to Create Advisory Board for Psilocybin Mushroom Therapy
DEC 03, 2020
Oregon to Create Advisory Board for Psilocybin Mushroom Therapy
Last month, Oregon became the first state in the US to legalize psilocybin mushrooms as a therapeutic treatment. Now, th ...
DEC 28, 2020
Cannabis Sciences
Does Cannabis Affect Stress in Men and Women Differently?
DEC 28, 2020
Does Cannabis Affect Stress in Men and Women Differently?
Researchers from Washington State University have found that cannabis may blunt the stress response differently in males ...
FEB 12, 2021
Neuroscience
How Cannabis Affects Entrepreneurial Skills
FEB 12, 2021
How Cannabis Affects Entrepreneurial Skills
Entrepreneurs are often known for their blue sky thinking, but when idea creation happens by entrepreneurs who are also ...
FEB 25, 2021
Immunology
Two Immune Guardians of the Brain Discovered
FEB 25, 2021
Two Immune Guardians of the Brain Discovered
Most organ systems are protected by a cavalry of immune cells present in the circulation—but not the brain. Consid ...
Loading Comments...