JUL 28, 2017 6:34 AM PDT

Tardigrade Study Reveals More Secrets About these Fascinating Life Forms

WRITTEN BY: Anthony Bouchard

Tardigrades are fascinating organisms, not just because they would likely survive almost any cataclysmic event that’s sure would wipe out all other life forms on Earth, but also because we know so little about them.

On the other hand, researchers from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and the University of Keio in Japan have dug deeper into tardigrade genetics to learn more about their enigmatic makeup and origins. Specifically, they looked at two different species, including Hypsibius dujardini and Ramazzottius varieornatus.

The findings, published in the journal PLOS Biology, reveal that tardigrades may be more like roundworms than insects, despite how they look.

Tardigrades, also known as 'water bears,' are the "toughest" creatures on Earth, and now we might finally know why.

Image Credit: Tanaka S, Sagara H, Kunieda

Related: Tardigrade DNA is shielded from radiation by this protein

They reached this conclusion from the number of HOX genes they found. These genes are responsible for the development of head, limb, and tail development in the embryonic stages, and while most creatures have 10 of these genes, tardigrades only have five.

In this respect, they’ve got a similarity to roundworms, which are said to have the same five HOX genes. Because this is an unusual characteristic, researchers believe that roundworms and tardigrades may be related in some way.

But that’s not all they discovered; it seems the research also paved the way for understanding how survives during long periods of dehydration.

As their cells dry out, the creature begins to produce a type of protein-based ‘bioglass’ that prevents the cells from sustaining any damage during the dry bout. Once water is available again, the cells start to absorb it, replacing the protein that held them over for the time being.

While the concept above isn’t new, this study sought to understand what parts of the creature’s genes were responsible for carrying out the task. The researchers paid close attention to protein activity as they subjected the tardigrades to artificial dehydration conditions.

The results pointed to mechanisms that are responsible for repairing DNA. These same mechanisms appear to be multifunctional, performing more tasks than what meets the eye initially.

“I have been fascinated by these tiny, endearing animals for two decades. It is wonderful to finally have their true genomes, and to begin to understand them. It has also been great to work with Kazuharu Arakawa and his Japanese colleagues on this – science is truly global, and together we achieved exciting things,” study co-author Prof. Mark Blaxter said in a statement.

“This is just the start – with the DNA blueprint we can now find out how tardigrades resist extremes, and perhaps use their special proteins in biotechnology and medical applications.”

We’re only just beginning to understand these microscopic life forms. If we ever want to learn every secret, there’s still a lot more work to be done. Understanding how tardigrades work could help inspire breakthrough technologies to benefit all of humanity.

Source: Science Alert, Scimex

About the Author
Fascinated by scientific discoveries and media, Anthony found his way here at LabRoots, where he would be able to dabble in the two. Anthony is a technology junkie that has vast experience in computer systems and automobile mechanics, as opposite as those sound.
You May Also Like
FEB 11, 2022
Plants & Animals
New Prostate Cancer Drug Effective in Dogs, Promising for Humans
FEB 11, 2022
New Prostate Cancer Drug Effective in Dogs, Promising for Humans
Prostate cancer affects about one in eight men each year, and is one of the most common types of cancer in men). Researc ...
FEB 17, 2022
Plants & Animals
Fighting Illegal Elephant Ivory Trafficking With DNA Testing
FEB 17, 2022
Fighting Illegal Elephant Ivory Trafficking With DNA Testing
Ivory poaching and trading has a long and tragic history. Humans have coveted ivory for use in a range of products&mdash ...
FEB 18, 2022
Neuroscience
Human Neurons Found to be Surprisingly Different From Other Mammals
FEB 18, 2022
Human Neurons Found to be Surprisingly Different From Other Mammals
Ion channels are crucial for neural communication; they control the flow and gradient of charged particles, creating ele ...
FEB 24, 2022
Genetics & Genomics
Can Evolutionary Changes Happen Suddenly?
FEB 24, 2022
Can Evolutionary Changes Happen Suddenly?
When we think of evolutionary changes, we tend to consider long stretches of time. But can evolution happen rapidly? The ...
MAR 01, 2022
Cell & Molecular Biology
Massive Cell Blurs the Line Between Life Forms
MAR 01, 2022
Massive Cell Blurs the Line Between Life Forms
How much do we really know about the vast number of microbes that live on Earth?
APR 12, 2022
Neuroscience
Your Brain on Natural vs. Added Sugar
APR 12, 2022
Your Brain on Natural vs. Added Sugar
When we think of sugar, we often affiliate it with junk food like cereal, candy, or soda, and in turn often associate it ...
Loading Comments...