SEP 10, 2018 6:19 PM PDT

The James Webb Space Telescope May Help Astronomers Search for Alien Life

WRITTEN BY: Anthony Bouchard

Despite an onslaught of delays that have thus far prevented NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope from being launched into space, the space observatory promises to answer some of the most challenging questions about our universe today.

Perhaps one of the most mind-bending questions of them all is: are we alone out there? Astronomers have been searching for answers to this question for as long as we can remember, but the James Webb Space Telescope could bring us one step closer to resolving it.

Image Credit: NASA/Wikimedia Commons/Joshua Krissansen-Totton

Astronomer Joshua Krissansen-Totton and colleagues from the University of Washington note that the James Webb Space Telescope’s powerful onboard sensory equipment could be far more capable of searching for exoplanetary biosignatures than any of its predecessors.

More specifically, they’d be looking for a particular byproduct of life known as "atmospheric chemical disequilibrium," a study published in the journal Science Advances reports. But what does that mean?

To better understand the meaning, we must consider our Earth and how its atmospheric chemical composition changed once life began breathing and sustaining biological chemical reactions.

Theoretically, similar chemical byproducts should exist in exoplanetary atmospheres if those worlds support alien life; but it’s always possible that alien life forms, should they exist, might not inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide as humans do. In fact, the circumstances may be very different.

"This idea of looking for atmospheric oxygen as a biosignature has been around for a long time. And it's a good strategy—it's very hard to make much oxygen without life," Krissansen-Totton explained.

"But we don't want to put all our eggs in one basket. Even if life is common in the cosmos, we have no idea if it will be life that makes oxygen. The biochemistry of oxygen production is very complex and could be quite rare."

Related: NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes cryogenic testing

The astronomers involved in the study agree that three specific gasses could be used to discern whether an exoplanet potentially supported alien life. The presence of both carbon dioxide and methane in an exoplanet’s atmosphere would look somewhat promising, but the coexistence of vast amounts of carbon monoxide in the same exoplanet’s atmosphere would likely serve as an automatic disqualifier.

"We need to look for fairly abundant methane and carbon dioxide on a world that has liquid water at its surface, and find an absence of carbon monoxide," added study co-author David Catling.

"Our study shows that this combination would be a compelling sign of life. What's exciting is that our suggestion is doable, and may lead to the historic discovery of an extraterrestrial biosphere in the not-too-distant future."

Related: This hot exoplanet's atmosphere contains gaseous atomic iron and titanium

While the traditional search for both liquid water and oxygen gas serves as an excellent starting point for discerning potentially-habitable exoplanets, the researchers conclude that the atmospheric concoction described in their paper would help astronomers narrow down potential life-supporting exoplanets.

Fortunately, the James Webb Space Telescope’s powerful infrared capabilities would make for the ideal tool for investigating exoplanetary atmospheres for these biological signatures. The observatory’s 6.5-meter gold-plated mirror promise to provide some the most explicit and precise data astronomers have ever laid eyes on.

It’ll be a few more years before the James Webb Space Telescope gets to visit outer space, but it certainly seems like it will be worth the wait. If all goes well, perhaps we’ll finally answer this pressing question once and for all.

Source: BBC, Phys.org, Science Advances

About the Author
Fascinated by scientific discoveries and media, Anthony found his way here at LabRoots, where he would be able to dabble in the two. Anthony is a technology junkie that has vast experience in computer systems and automobile mechanics, as opposite as those sound.
You May Also Like
AUG 14, 2022
Space & Astronomy
Looking Back in Space: NASA's Pioneer Program
AUG 14, 2022
Looking Back in Space: NASA's Pioneer Program
This series will explore historic space missions from the start of the Space Age to the present day, including both crew ...
SEP 23, 2022
Space & Astronomy
James Webb Space Telescope Looks at the Red Planet
SEP 23, 2022
James Webb Space Telescope Looks at the Red Planet
NASA just released the first images and spectra of Mars taken by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The data was col ...
OCT 25, 2022
Space & Astronomy
Detection of the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst Ever
OCT 25, 2022
Detection of the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst Ever
On October 9, 2022, telescopes detected one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts ever! A gamma-ray burst (GRB) is an extrem ...
NOV 11, 2022
Chemistry & Physics
Grad Student Highlights: Andrew Saydjari (Harvard University)
NOV 11, 2022
Grad Student Highlights: Andrew Saydjari (Harvard University)
This interview series is focused on the graduate student experience across all STEM fields that allows them to get their ...
NOV 09, 2022
Space & Astronomy
Building Artemis Base Camp with Lunar Regolith "Bricks"
NOV 09, 2022
Building Artemis Base Camp with Lunar Regolith "Bricks"
In a recent study published in Ceramics International, a team of researchers from the University of Central Florida (UCF ...
DEC 02, 2022
Space & Astronomy
JWST Images Titan Like Never Before
DEC 02, 2022
JWST Images Titan Like Never Before
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) keeps sending us fantastic pictures of our universe, but this time it was ...
Loading Comments...