Nonhuman primates are commonly used in biomedical research due to its anatomical, behavioral, and genetic similarities with humans. Macaques, especially the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) are one the species of monkeys commonly used for this purpose. Therefore, it is important to have a basic knowledge of frequent clinical and pathological findings when managing the health of macaques. In this presentation we will briefly discuss some of the common diseases and problems observed such as neoplasia, endometriosis, enteritis, traumas, and viral diseases. We will also present some important points about the laboratory management of macaques. Lastly, we will present some uses of monkeys in biomedical research.