MAR 19, 2015 07:30 AM PDT

Keynote - The Environmental Causes of Schizophrenia - Developmental Hazards, Social Defeat, and Drug Abuse

Presented At Neuroscience
Speakers
  • Professor of Psychiatric Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London
    Biography
      Robin Murray is Professor of Psychiatric Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, and indeed has spent most of his working life there apart from one year in the USA: fortunately the latter did not do him too much harm. His particular interest is in understanding the causes of psychosis, and he and his colleagues have contributed to the understanding that environmental factors such as obstetric events, heavy cannabis use and migration increase the risk of developing schizophrenia-like psychoses. He is also sees people with psychosis at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust who are been referred from across the UK because they have not responded to treatment locally. He has written numerous articles, not all of the boring, and is the second most frequently cited psychiatrist outside the USA; he has supervised 52 PhDs and 35 of his students have become professors. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2010 and received a knighthood in 2011.

    Abstract:

    Traditional psychiatric textbooks describe schizophrenia as a clinical enigma of unknown aetiology. However, this is no longer true. We now know a great deal about the risk factors, or contributory causes, of schizophrenia. These can be roughly divided into two main types; those which result in a) aberrant neurodevelopment and b) those which cause dopamine dysregulation; both characteristic abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Genetic factors are, of course, pre-eminent. These will be discussed elsewhere. However, certain environmental factors have been consistently associated with schizophrenia. Some such as adverse obstetric events (e.g. prenatal infection, perinatal hypoxia) impair neurodevelopment. Others such as abuse of drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine and cannabis which increase striatal dopamine also increase risk. In recent years it has become clear that heavy use of high potency cannabis is responsible for a significant proportion of psychosis. Psychotogenic "legal highs" such as synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones are becoming an increasing cause of acute psychosis. A range of social adversities such as child abuse, adverse life events, migration/minority ethnicity appear also to facilitate dopamine dysregulation and consequent psychosis. Curiously, psychosis is more common in those born and brought up in large cities than in rural areas. Most recently, it has become clear that the incidence is much higher in cities in Northern countries such as UK and Holland than in both rural and urban areas in Spain and Italy. The exact reason(s) for these differences are unclear but speculation centres on social fragmentation and social isolation. The challenge for researchers is now to trace the pathogenic pathways from risk factors to psychosis.


    Show Resources
    You May Also Like
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 22, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that...
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 3, 2018TIME: 11:00AM PDT, 2:00PM EDTWhile stress is one of the leading causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, the molecular underpinnings of how stress induces alterations in b...
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    DATE: May 24, 2018 TIME: 9:30PM PDT The current gold standard in in vitro pre-clinical cancer treatment screening remain cell lines,...
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    DATE: April 27, 2018TIME: 10:00am PST, 1:00pm ESTGlioblastoma (GBM) and Medulloblastoma (MB) are the most common adult and paediatric brain tumours, both of which can have devastating c...
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    Immunohistochemistry protocols, which utilize antibodies to visualize proteins in tissue sections, have many steps that need optimized to prevent non-specific background effects, artifacts, o...
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: August 15, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT, 11:00AM EDTThe failure of current chemotherapeutic strategies in the fight against cancer can be largely attributed to the occurrence of drug res...
    Loading Comments...