MAR 19, 2015 07:30 AM PDT

Keynote - The Environmental Causes of Schizophrenia - Developmental Hazards, Social Defeat, and Drug Abuse

Presented At Neuroscience
Speakers
  • Professor of Psychiatric Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London
    Biography
      Robin Murray is Professor of Psychiatric Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, and indeed has spent most of his working life there apart from one year in the USA: fortunately the latter did not do him too much harm. His particular interest is in understanding the causes of psychosis, and he and his colleagues have contributed to the understanding that environmental factors such as obstetric events, heavy cannabis use and migration increase the risk of developing schizophrenia-like psychoses. He is also sees people with psychosis at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust who are been referred from across the UK because they have not responded to treatment locally. He has written numerous articles, not all of the boring, and is the second most frequently cited psychiatrist outside the USA; he has supervised 52 PhDs and 35 of his students have become professors. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2010 and received a knighthood in 2011.

    Abstract:

    Traditional psychiatric textbooks describe schizophrenia as a clinical enigma of unknown aetiology. However, this is no longer true. We now know a great deal about the risk factors, or contributory causes, of schizophrenia. These can be roughly divided into two main types; those which result in a) aberrant neurodevelopment and b) those which cause dopamine dysregulation; both characteristic abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Genetic factors are, of course, pre-eminent. These will be discussed elsewhere. However, certain environmental factors have been consistently associated with schizophrenia. Some such as adverse obstetric events (e.g. prenatal infection, perinatal hypoxia) impair neurodevelopment. Others such as abuse of drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine and cannabis which increase striatal dopamine also increase risk. In recent years it has become clear that heavy use of high potency cannabis is responsible for a significant proportion of psychosis. Psychotogenic "legal highs" such as synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones are becoming an increasing cause of acute psychosis. A range of social adversities such as child abuse, adverse life events, migration/minority ethnicity appear also to facilitate dopamine dysregulation and consequent psychosis. Curiously, psychosis is more common in those born and brought up in large cities than in rural areas. Most recently, it has become clear that the incidence is much higher in cities in Northern countries such as UK and Holland than in both rural and urban areas in Spain and Italy. The exact reason(s) for these differences are unclear but speculation centres on social fragmentation and social isolation. The challenge for researchers is now to trace the pathogenic pathways from risk factors to psychosis.


    Show Resources
    You May Also Like
    SEP 05, 2019 04:00 PM CEST
    C.E. CREDITS
    SEP 05, 2019 04:00 PM CEST
    DATE: September 5, 2019TIME: 7:00am PT, 10:00am ET, 4:00pm CEST PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has gone through a massive evolution since its development in 1983. Besides it...
    MAY 16, 2019 04:00 PM CEST
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 16, 2019 04:00 PM CEST
    DATE: May 16, 2019TIME: 7:00am PDT, 10:00am EDT, 4:00pm CEST The emergence of NGS is revolutionizing the microbiological sciences and transforming medicine. Deep sequencing has...
    AUG 27, 2019 09:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    AUG 27, 2019 09:00 AM PDT
    DATE: August 27, 2019 TIME: 9:00am PDT, 12:00pm EDT Immunotherapies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have proven remarkably effective for treating cancer in some patients, with considerabl...
    JUN 05, 2019 05:00 PM CEST
    C.E. CREDITS
    JUN 05, 2019 05:00 PM CEST
    DATE: June 5, 2019TIME: 8:00am PDT, 11:00am EDT, 5:00pm CEST Eukaryotic cell cultures respond to the most subtle influence. Apart from the risk of contamination, minimal chan...
    AUG 13, 2019 09:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    AUG 13, 2019 09:00 AM PDT
    DATE: August 13, 2019TIME: 9:00am PT, 12:00pm ET, 5:00pm BST Molecular complexes are major constituents of cells, hence unraveling their mechanisms is key to fuller comprehension of c...
    JUN 19, 2019 10:00 AM PDT
    JUN 19, 2019 10:00 AM PDT
    DATE: June 19, 2019TIME: 10:00am PDT, 1:00pm EDT As we develop new methods to create more biologically relevant models for research in understanding disease etiology and in...
    Loading Comments...
    Show Resources