FEB 22, 2017 06:00 AM PST

Mate-pair next generation sequencing as a powerful clinical tool for the characterization of cancer

C.E. CREDITS: P.A.C.E. CE | Florida CE
Speakers
  • Professor and Consultant at Mayo Clinic
    Biography
      David I Smith received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1978 studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria. After doing post-doctoral work first at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and then at the University of California, Irvine, he got his first faculty position at Wayne State University in 1985. In 1996 he joined the Mayo Clinic as a full Professor in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology. His laboratory studies the common fragile sites which are regions of profound genomic instability that are found in all individuals. His laboratory also studies the various ways that human
      papillomavirus is involved in the generation of different cancers. Dr. Smith is also the Chairman of the Technology Assessment Group for the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine. The role of this group is to evaluate new technologies that could have a profound impact on basic research and its' clinical translation. The most exciting technology that has the greatest potential to change both research and clinical practice is next generation sequencing and Dr. Smith and his group have been using this technology to answer scientific questions. The advances in next generation sequencing over the past 10 years have been nothing
      short of incredible and it is now possible to generate terrabases of DNA sequence in a single run of a next generation sequencer. This technology can be utilized in a number of ways from characterizing just a few genes all the way to whole genome sequencing.

    Abstract:

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing have now made it possible to characterize genomes, transcriptomes and even methylomes which is transforming both basic research and clinical practice. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful tool to analyze molecular alterations that occur during the development of cancer, but there are a number of challenges to using WGS as a clinical tool. A practical alternative to WGS is the utilization of mate-pair next generation sequencing (MP-Seq) which can be done for a fraction of the cost of WGS. We have been using MP-Seq to characterize the different roles that human papillomavirus (HPV) plays in the development of different cancers. The cancer that we have been studying is oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) as this cancer is increasingly caused by infection with HPV and there has been an epidemic increase in the incidence of this cancer. We utilized MP-Seq to analyze a group of HPV-positive OPSCCs. What we have found is that HPV is integrated into the genome of OPSCCs in only 30% of these cancers, which is quite distinct from what is observed in cervical cancer. In addition, we have found that the highly unstable common fragile sites and the large genes contained within these regions are hot-spots both for viral integrations and for other alterations in these cancers. Several large common fragile site genes are consistently altered in these cancers. MP-Seq can also determine genome-wide molecular alterations and these alterations can be utilized as cancer-specific markers for the detection of circulating tumor-free DNA from the blood of these patients. This could provide a powerful tool for the development of the liquid biopsy to monitor cancer-treatment of these patients. We will discuss how MP-Seq could thus become a powerful clinical tool for the characterization of genomic alterations in cancer and the development of the liquid biopsy.

    Learning Objective 1: Understand how MP-Seq can provide important information about genomic alterations in cancer

    Learning Objective 2: Learn about how HPV is involved in the development of different cancers

    Learning Objective 3: Learn about how MP-Seq can be a powerful tool to aid in the development of the liquid biopsy

     


    Show Resources
    You May Also Like
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 3, 2018TIME: 11:00AM PDT, 2:00PM EDTWhile stress is one of the leading causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, the molecular underpinnings of how stress induces alterations in b...
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    DATE: May 24, 2018 TIME: 9:30PM PDT The current gold standard in in vitro pre-clinical cancer treatment screening remain cell lines,...
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 22, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that...
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    DATE: April 27, 2018TIME: 10:00am PST, 1:00pm ESTGlioblastoma (GBM) and Medulloblastoma (MB) are the most common adult and paediatric brain tumours, both of which can have devastating c...
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    Immunohistochemistry protocols, which utilize antibodies to visualize proteins in tissue sections, have many steps that need optimized to prevent non-specific background effects, artifacts, o...
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: August 15, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT, 11:00AM EDTThe failure of current chemotherapeutic strategies in the fight against cancer can be largely attributed to the occurrence of drug res...
    Loading Comments...