MAY 13, 2015 03:00 PM PDT

Population genomics of sex chromosome evolution

C.E. CREDITS: CE | CEU
Speakers
  • Assistant Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
    Biography
      Dr. Wilson Sayres is actively working to understand the evolution of sex chromosomes (X and Y in mammals), and also interested in using the unique properties of these chromosomes (e.g., that they spend different amounts of time in the male and female germlines, and are subject to different selective pressures) to address how mutations accumulate. To address the first area of interest, she is cataloging and interpreting variation among Y chromosomes from populations around the world. She is also comparing diversity on the sex chromosomes and non-sex chromosomes across hundreds of individuals to determine how population demography, selection, and sex-specific mutation processes combine to contribute to the accumulation of mutations in the human genome.
      <br />

    Abstract:

    There is tremendous sexual dimorphism in human genetic disease susceptibility, progression, and drug response. It is thus alarming that most genome-wide association studies exclude the most sexually dimorphic regions of our genome, the sex chromosomes. An essential component of incorporating the X and Y into studies of human disease, with their unique inheritance patterns, and response to population history and selection, is to understand their evolutionary history. Ancestrally, both the X and Y chromosomes shared identical gene content, but throughout our evolutionary history the Y chromosome has lost over 90% of the gene content it once shared with the X. The loss of Y-linked sequence not only affects the fate of the Y chromosome, but it also modulates the evolution and expression of X-linked genes. XX humans inactivate gene expression on one of their X chromosomes, but not completely; 15% of genes escape X-inactivation, while another 10% escape X-inactivation in only a subset of individuals. Analyzing patterns of heterogeneous X-inactivation across individual cell lines, we show that genes on the X chromosome are silenced in response to gene loss on the Y. Variation in these patterns of silencing are important for understanding the etiology of, and variation in, X-linked diseases. Learning Objectives: 1. Explain the importance of including the human X and Y chromosomes in clinical and genetic analysis. 2. Appreciate the role of the sex chromosomes in human health and disease 3. Discuss the implications of human Y chromosome variation.


    Show Resources
    You May Also Like
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    MAY 03, 2018 11:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 3, 2018TIME: 11:00AM PDT, 2:00PM EDTWhile stress is one of the leading causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, the molecular underpinnings of how stress induces alterations in b...
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 22, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 22, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that...
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 24, 2018 09:30 AM PDT
    DATE: May 24, 2018 TIME: 9:30PM PDT The current gold standard in in vitro pre-clinical cancer treatment screening remain cell lines,...
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    APR 27, 2018 10:00 AM PDT
    DATE: April 27, 2018TIME: 10:00am PST, 1:00pm ESTGlioblastoma (GBM) and Medulloblastoma (MB) are the most common adult and paediatric brain tumours, both of which can have devastating c...
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    AUG 15, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    DATE: August 15, 2018TIME: 08:00AM PDT, 11:00AM EDTThe failure of current chemotherapeutic strategies in the fight against cancer can be largely attributed to the occurrence of drug res...
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 02, 2018 08:00 AM PDT
    Immunohistochemistry protocols, which utilize antibodies to visualize proteins in tissue sections, have many steps that need optimized to prevent non-specific background effects, artifacts, o...
    Loading Comments...