AUG 21, 2013 4:00 PM PDT

The hidden layer of RNA regulation in human development

C.E. Credits: CE
Speaker
  • Executive Director, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Conjoint Professor in the St Vincent's Hospital Clinical School and the Faculty of Medicine, at the University of New South Wale
    Biography
      John joined the Garvan Institute as the Executive Director in January 2012. He has made a significant contribution to the understanding of genetics and genomics through his farsighted theories on 'junk' DNA, the large non-coding sections of the human genome that do not code for proteins. Most recently John was the Professor of Molecular Biology and NHMRC Australia Fellow at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland. John was educated at St Patrick's College Strathfield, the University of Sydney and Monash University, where he obtained his PhD. He has subsequently worked at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, the CSIRO Division of Molecular Biology in Sydney, and the University of Queensland, where he was based from 1988-2011. He has also spent research periods at the Universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Cologne and Strasbourg. He was Foundation Director of the Australian Genome Research Facility and the Institute for Molecular Bioscience.

    Abstract

    High throughput transcriptomic analyses have shown that most of the human genome is dynamically transcribed to produce an extraordinary range of overlapping and interlacing intronic, intergenic and antisense RNAs, many of which are alternatively spliced, to produce a previously hidden universe of long and short regulatory RNAs. These RNAs fulfill various functions in gene expression, with miRNAs and related species being best (although not well) understood. The functions of the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which range from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of bases in length, are varied and include central roles in the formation of various differentiation-specific subnuclear organelles. However, recent evidence suggests that the major function of lncRNAs is to guide chromatin-modifying complexes to their sites of action, to specify the architectural trajectories of development and differentiation. In addition, it appears that these RNAs are subject to context-dependent editing, particularly in the brain, which appears to be, along with transposon mobility, the molecular basis of physiological and cognitive plasticity. The transcriptome is in fact far more complex than the genome, which is best viewed as a zip file that is unpacked in highly cell-specific patterns during development. Focused RNA sequencing (using oligonucleotide capture to target specific loci, similar to exome sequencing) reveals thousands of previously unknown exons and spliced isoforms of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as well as a rich landscape of lncRNAs expressed from genomic regions, including GWAS regions associated with complex diseases, that superficially appear to be transcriptionally bare by conventional deep sequencing. Not surprisingly, it is also emerging that variations in the sequence or expression of these RNAs not only underpin phenotypic differences between individuals and species, but also play significant roles in the etiology of complex diseases, including as cancer and neurological diseases.


    Show Resources
    You May Also Like
    JAN 23, 2020 9:00 AM PST
    C.E. CREDITS
    JAN 23, 2020 9:00 AM PST
    DATE: January 23, 2020 TIME: 9:00am PST, 12:00pm EST...
    APR 07, 2020 8:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    APR 07, 2020 8:00 AM PDT
    DATE: April 7, 2020 TIME: 8:00am PT, 11:00am ET This webinar sets out to establish why quality control is key to robust, reliable, reproducible science. We will look at best practice criteri...
    MAY 08, 2020 10:00 AM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    MAY 08, 2020 10:00 AM PDT
    DATE: May 8, 2020 TIME: 10:00am PT, 11:00am MT, 1:00pm ET The application of next generation sequencing to interrogate immune repertoires and methods in which these highly complex dataset...
    FEB 26, 2020 9:00 AM PST
    C.E. CREDITS
    FEB 26, 2020 9:00 AM PST
    DATE: February 26, 2020 TIME: 9:00am PST 3D cell culture and analysis and the study of organoids and spheroids are becoming more prevalent as a research method in publications as traditional...
    JUN 17, 2020 1:30 PM PDT
    C.E. CREDITS
    JUN 17, 2020 1:30 PM PDT
    Understanding the complex interplay between a pathogen and the host response is important to developing effective vaccines and therapeutics. The nCounter® Analysis System and GeoMx®...
    FEB 19, 2020 11:00 AM PST
    C.E. CREDITS
    FEB 19, 2020 11:00 AM PST
    DATE: February 19, 2020TIME: 11:00am PST, 2:00pm EST...
    Loading Comments...
    Show Resources