APR 29, 2015 12:18 PM PDT

Steps Closer to the Alchemy of Changing Blood Types

WRITTEN BY: Judy O'Rourke
What to do when a patient needs a blood transfusion but you don't have their blood type in the blood bank? It's a problem scientists have been trying to solve for years but haven't been able to find an economic solution-until now.

University of British Columbia chemists and scientists in the Centre for Blood Research have created an enzyme that could potentially solve the problem. The enzyme works by snipping off the sugars, also known as antigens, found in Type A and Type B blood, making it more like Type O. Type O blood is known as the universal donor and can be given to patients of all blood types.

"We produced a mutant enzyme that is very efficient at cutting off the sugars in A and B blood, and is much more proficient at removing the subtypes of the A-antigen that the parent enzyme struggles with," says David Kwan, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Chemistry.

The defining difference between A, B, and O blood types is the presence of slightly different sugar structures on the outside of the red blood cells of each type. Type A and B blood cells each have a single additional sugar attached to their surface.

To create this high-powered enzyme capable of snipping off sugars, researchers used a new technology called directed evolution that involves inserting mutations into the gene that codes for the enzyme, and selecting mutants that are more effective at cutting the antigens. In just five generations, the enzyme became 170 times more effective.

With this enzyme, UBC associate professor Jayachandran Kizhakkedathu and colleagues in the Centre for Blood Research were able to remove the wide majority of the antigens in Type A and B blood. But before it can be used in clinical settings, the enzyme used would need to remove all of the antigens. The immune system is highly sensitive to blood groups and even small amounts of residual antigens could trigger an immune response.

"The concept is not new but until now we needed so much of the enzyme to make it work that it was impractical," says Steve Withers, professor, Department of Chemistry. "Now I'm confident that we can take this a whole lot further."

The study, titled "Toward Efficient Enzymes for the Generation of Universal Blood through Structure-Guided Directed Evolution," is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

[Source: The University of British Columbia]
About the Author
  • Judy O'Rourke worked as a newspaper reporter before becoming chief editor of Clinical Lab Products magazine. As a freelance writer today, she is interested in finding the story behind the latest developments in medicine and science, and in learning what lies ahead.
You May Also Like
NOV 15, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
NOV 15, 2019
Mysterious Cosmic Radio Signal Pinpointed to its Source
Releasing the 80 years-worth entire solar energy in just a tiny fraction of a second, fast radio burst (FRB) is the one of most energetic and mysterious ph...
NOV 15, 2019
Space & Astronomy
NOV 15, 2019
The Science Behind Saturn's Peculiar Noises
Saturn is one of the solar system’s most captivating planets. That said, it’s no surprise that scientists spent 15 years monitoring the distant...
NOV 15, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
NOV 15, 2019
Competition of Different Photosynthesis Mechanisms might Have Slowed Down Oxygenation of the Prehistoric Earth
Long before Earth became a hotbed for a diversity of life forms, its atmosphere had almost no oxygen. Thanks to the emergence of photosynthesis inside prim...
NOV 15, 2019
Technology
NOV 15, 2019
PLOT-cryo: A High Tech Sniffing Device
It’s no secret that stink is science cooking and so chemist Megan Harries, a postdoctoral fellow and chemist at the National Institute of Standards a...
NOV 15, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
NOV 15, 2019
Who'd Have Known: Plastic Teabags Could Ruin Your Zen (and Health, Too)
It's no news that our world is entrenched in plastics. What's more unnerving, recent scientific studies found that the tiny pieces of plastics wast...
NOV 15, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
NOV 15, 2019
Record-making Nuclear Fusion Device to Rescue Dwindling Medical Isotope Supply
Neutron generators are a type of nuclear fusion device that can produce a stream of neutrons through merging hydrogen atoms. Because of the intri...
Loading Comments...