APR 29, 2015 12:18 PM PDT

Steps Closer to the Alchemy of Changing Blood Types

WRITTEN BY: Judy O'Rourke
What to do when a patient needs a blood transfusion but you don't have their blood type in the blood bank? It's a problem scientists have been trying to solve for years but haven't been able to find an economic solution-until now.

University of British Columbia chemists and scientists in the Centre for Blood Research have created an enzyme that could potentially solve the problem. The enzyme works by snipping off the sugars, also known as antigens, found in Type A and Type B blood, making it more like Type O. Type O blood is known as the universal donor and can be given to patients of all blood types.

"We produced a mutant enzyme that is very efficient at cutting off the sugars in A and B blood, and is much more proficient at removing the subtypes of the A-antigen that the parent enzyme struggles with," says David Kwan, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Chemistry.

The defining difference between A, B, and O blood types is the presence of slightly different sugar structures on the outside of the red blood cells of each type. Type A and B blood cells each have a single additional sugar attached to their surface.

To create this high-powered enzyme capable of snipping off sugars, researchers used a new technology called directed evolution that involves inserting mutations into the gene that codes for the enzyme, and selecting mutants that are more effective at cutting the antigens. In just five generations, the enzyme became 170 times more effective.

With this enzyme, UBC associate professor Jayachandran Kizhakkedathu and colleagues in the Centre for Blood Research were able to remove the wide majority of the antigens in Type A and B blood. But before it can be used in clinical settings, the enzyme used would need to remove all of the antigens. The immune system is highly sensitive to blood groups and even small amounts of residual antigens could trigger an immune response.

"The concept is not new but until now we needed so much of the enzyme to make it work that it was impractical," says Steve Withers, professor, Department of Chemistry. "Now I'm confident that we can take this a whole lot further."

The study, titled "Toward Efficient Enzymes for the Generation of Universal Blood through Structure-Guided Directed Evolution," is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

[Source: The University of British Columbia]
About the Author
  • Judy O'Rourke worked as a newspaper reporter before becoming chief editor of Clinical Lab Products magazine. As a freelance writer today, she is interested in finding the story behind the latest developments in medicine and science, and in learning what lies ahead.
You May Also Like
NOV 21, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
NOV 21, 2019
Pharmacist Who Debunked False Vit C Claim Honored by the Maddox Prize
"Sense about Science" is a UK-based NGO that promotes the public understanding of science. Every year the organization gives the John Maddox Priz...
DEC 19, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
DEC 19, 2019
The Science Behind Christmas
The holiday season is upon us, and to wrap-up the year and get you into the holiday spirit, we are dedicating the last infographic to Christmas. After all, what's a better way to celebrate...
DEC 24, 2019
Chemistry & Physics
DEC 24, 2019
Santa's not the Only One that's Making Haste - the Magnetic North Pole's Wandering Accelerates
According to the latest World Magnetic Model (WMM) released by the  NOAA's National Centres for Environmental Information (NCEI), the  Earth&...
JAN 05, 2020
Space & Astronomy
JAN 05, 2020
Is Betelgeuse on the Verge of Going Supernova?
There’s been a lot of discussion happening as of late with respect to the Orion constellation’s red supergiant star Betelgeuse. Being one of th...
JAN 22, 2020
Space & Astronomy
JAN 22, 2020
Astronomers Have Found the Farthest Galaxy Group
An international team of astronomers funded in part by NASA has found the farthest galaxy group identified to date.  The trio of galaxies, called EGS7...
FEB 25, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
FEB 25, 2020
The Art of Kinetics
The conservation of energy is a universal rule in our universe.  This principle of nature dictates that in an isolated system, the total amount of ene...
Loading Comments...