The weak nuclear force, or weak force for short, is so named because it is the direct contrast to the strong nuclear force, the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons to form the nucleus of atoms.
Proposed by the famed physicist Enrico Fermi in 1933, the weak force is responsible for the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
For example, in beta decay the weak force changes the flavor of a quark inside a neutron and transforms it into a proton, releasing an electron and electron anti-neutrino in the process.
Along with the strong force, electromagnetism, and gravitation, the weak force make up one of the four fundamental interactions of nature that are currently known to science.
Source: SciShow via Youtube