JUN 15, 2017 6:51 AM PDT

The Known and Unknown in the Standard Model of Particle Physics

WRITTEN BY: Daniel Duan

 

The Standard Model of Particle Physics is the collection of discoveries and theories that describe the smallest units of matter and the interactions between energy and matter. According to this model, everything in the universe is made from subatomic structures known as fundamental particles - quarks, leptons, and bosons, and governed by four fundamental forces - strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetism and gravity.

Quarks and leptons are also known as Fermions, and they make up matters. The quark group includes six particles including: up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom quarks. The lepton group includes the electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino, electron, muon and Tau particles. Within Fermions, particles are related in pairs or generations. The lightest and most stable particles make up the first generation, whereas the heavier and less stable particles belong to the second and third generations.

The group of bosons include the photon, gluon, Z particle, W particle and the Higgs. They are the carriers for forces: the strong force is carried by the gluon, the electromagnetic force is carried by the photon, and the W and Z bosons are responsible for the weak force. Graviton, the theoretical boson that is responsible for gravity, is still being searched by scientists around the world. The Higgs boson, discovered in 2012, is thought to underpin the generation of mass.

The Standard Model has successfully passed the tests of decades-worth experiments and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. But it is far from complete: one of the four fundamental forces gravity cannot be explained in this model; nor does it elucidate the existence of dark matter and dark energy (27% and 68% of the universe’s total mass-energy) and many other puzzling questions.

Elementary Particles in the Standard Model. Credit: Wikipedia

Source: CERN/Live Science

Video link credit: CERN - The Standard Model of Particle Physics

About the Author
  • Graduated with a bachelor degree in Pharmaceutical Science and a master degree in neuropharmacology, Daniel is a radiopharmaceutical and radiobiology expert based in Ottawa, Canada. With years of experience in biomedical R&D, Daniel is very into writing. He is constantly fascinated by what's happening in the world of science. He hopes to capture the public's interest and promote scientific literacy with his trending news articles. The recurring topics in his Chemistry & Physics trending news section include alternative energy, material science, theoretical physics, medical imaging, and green chemistry.
You May Also Like
OCT 02, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
A New Way of Building Houses: 3-D Printing with Clay
OCT 02, 2020
A New Way of Building Houses: 3-D Printing with Clay
Our ancestors had a long history of building dwelling structures using clay and plant-based fibrous materials. Even thes ...
OCT 18, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
Monitoring ocean chemistry over the last forty years
OCT 18, 2020
Monitoring ocean chemistry over the last forty years
A study published recently in Nature Communications Earth & Environment contemplates the changing chemistry and ...
NOV 12, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
Can a Chemical Be Both Nurturing and Destructive?
NOV 12, 2020
Can a Chemical Be Both Nurturing and Destructive?
On August 4, a megascale explosion almost leveled half of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. At the center of the negl ...
NOV 11, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
Bioconductive ink uses the body's own electrical signals to direct how and where neurons grow
NOV 11, 2020
Bioconductive ink uses the body's own electrical signals to direct how and where neurons grow
The development of a new bioconductive ink from researchers in Australia, India, and Bangladesh is reported in the journ ...
DEC 14, 2020
Chemistry & Physics
Using AI to classify data from solar images
DEC 14, 2020
Using AI to classify data from solar images
New research describes how scientists from the University of Graz, the Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory (Austria), and ...
DEC 27, 2020
Cell & Molecular Biology
Using Antibodies & Oligonucleotides to Control Specific Reactions
DEC 27, 2020
Using Antibodies & Oligonucleotides to Control Specific Reactions
Antibodies are naturally used by the body to bind targets on pathogens and neutralize them, and these specific interacti ...
Loading Comments...