MAR 16, 2017 1:30 PM PDT

Humans and fish to study the cellular mechanisms of neuromuscular development

Presented at: Neuroscience 2017
Speaker
  • Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Physiology, and Integrative Systems Biology, GW Institute for Neuroscience
    Biography
      M. Chiara Manzini is a human geneticist and cell biologist whose laboratory focuses on the molecular mechanisms of brain development. Her group at the George Washington University, identified disease-causing mutations in families affected by brain malformations, intellectual disability and autism. She uses both zebrafish and mouse models to study the cellular function of these disease genes. She obtained her undergraduate degree in Molecular Biology from the University of Pavia in Italy, a PhD in Neurobiology and Behavior from Columbia University in New York City, and completed postdoctoral training in neurogenetics at Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School in Boston. She joined the GWU faculty in 2013.

    Abstract

    Studying the genetics of rare congenital disorders disrupting cognitive function has led to the identification of multiple disease genes that helped us better understand the mechanisms underlying prenatal and postnatal development. While genetic studies have revealed great heterogeneity, the advent of next-generation sequencing genetic studies has greatly increased the pace of discovery.

    Our research focuses on a group of genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders, termed dystroglycanopathies. In these disorders loss or reduction of glycosylation of the transmembrane glycoprotein alpha-dystroglycan cause muscular dystrophy, associated with severe brain and ocular malformations and intellectual disability. The study of the genetics of dystroglycanopathies has been instrumental in defining that dystroglycan’s interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) are a key regulator of cell differentiation in the brain and retina. Twenty different genes can be mutated in dystroglycanopathies and most of these genes have a direct role in controlling assembly of glycans on the dystroglycan protein. These glycans mediate interactions with laminin and other ECM components, and different glycosylation patterns instruct protein-protein interactions. However, to date only half of dystroglycanopathy cases can be explained by mutations in the known genes and it is still unclear how most of these genes affect glycosylation processes involved in ECM function in the brain.

    This presentation will focus on our recent work on gene identification in dystroglycanopathies and related neuromuscular disorders using a combination of next-generation sequencing and functional validation in the zebrafish to study how the mutated genes affect brain development.


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