SEP 27, 2017 1:30 PM PDT

Evolutionary Cell Biology is a powerful paradigm to study complex biological systems

Presented at: Cell Biology 2017
Speaker
  • Graduate Student, Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science
    Biography
      Idan Frumkin is a graduate student at the Weizmann Institute of Science in the lab of Prof. Yitzhak Pilpel. Idan is mostly interested in studying how cellular processes and machineries change and become optimized in the course of evolution. Specifically, during his PhD, Idan applied an evolutionary perspective on both the translation apparatus and splicing machine to reveal new molecular mechanisms by which cells optimize their gene-expression regulation. His research is funded by an Azrieli PhD fellowship and a Wolf foundation scholarship. Idan will soon move to a post-doc at MIT in the lab of Prof. Michael Laub.

    Abstract

    Although the cell is commonly referred to as “the most basic unit of life”, it is actually so complex that despite over 350 years of research we are still far from fully understanding its structural, functional and evolutionary workings. Even the simplest unicellular organisms routinely carry out complicated tasks such as processing and responding to signals from the environment, maintaining an efficient metabolic network, communicating with other cells, and adapting to new evolutionary challenges.

    Studies in cell biology have illuminated many molecular pathways and protein functions that govern cells, but we still do not fully understand how these complex systems are established and function. I, and others, argue that a better dissection of the evolutionary mechanisms that produce cellular functions will significantly advance our understanding of the fundamental principles governing the complexities of cell biological systems by providing the rationale behind variations in cellular functions and networks. Bringing the fields of cell biology and evolution together into an integrated field of “evolutionary cell biology” has historically produced major advances in our understanding of cells. For example, the development of the “endosymbiotic theory” of how mitochondria arose revolutionized our understanding of the origins and structure of eukaryotic cells. Hence, further development of this interdisciplinary field will ultimately allow us to better address diverse areas of cell biology.

    Throughout my PhD, I found that combining evolutionary and cell-biological studies brings unique insights on cellular innovation, complexity, limitation, and adaptation. To this end, in my research, I combined molecular genetics methods and large-scale synthetic libraries with long-term lab-evolution protocols. With this approach, I manipulated the translation and splicing machineries, separately, to present them with molecular challenges. I then followed and deciphered the adaptation mechanisms used by these complex systems to restore their proper function. My work demonstrates how an evolutionary perspective on cell biological questions can teach us about the workings of living cells.


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