OCT 10, 2018 12:00 PM PDT

Integrative Cancer Immunology and Novel Concepts of Cancer Evolution

Speaker
  • Research Director, French Institute of Health and Medical Research
    Biography
      Dr. Jérôme Galon specialized in the fields of immunology and cancer, Jérôme Galon is Research Director at INSERM (French NIH), and head of the laboratory of Integrative Cancer Immunology, in Paris, France. He is associate Director and co-founder of European Academy of Tumor Immunology (EATI), board member of Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). His work on the comprehensive analysis of the tumor-microenvironment and the role of T-cells in human cancer led to the demonstration of the importance of adaptive pre-existing immunity in human cancer, and the concept of cancer immune-contexture. He pioneered the Immunoscore. He is the co-founder of HalioDx company and the Chairman of its scientific council. His contributions have been recognized with numerous awards, including the William B. Coley Award, an international prize which honors the best scientists in the fundamental and cancer immunology, and Award from the National Academy of Science, and Award from the National Academy of Medicine.

    Abstract

    To date the anatomic extent of tumor (TNM-classification) has been by far the most important factors to predict the prognosis of cancer patients. However, this classification provides limited prognostic information and does not predict response to therapy. 

    We redefined cancer by integrating the immune system, to transfer cutting-edge medicine to the patients. We showed that tumors from human colorectal cancer with a high-density of infiltrating memory and effector-memory T-cells (Tem) are less likely to disseminate to lymphovascular and perineural structures and to regional lymph-nodes. We demonstrated the critical tumor-microenvironment parameters determining the dissemination to distant metastasis. We showed that the combination of immune parameters associating the nature, the density, the functional immune orientation and the location of immune cells within the tumor was essential to accurately define the impact of the local host-immune reaction on patients prognosis. We defined these parameters as the “immune contexture”. We characterized the immune landscape within human tumors, and showed the importance of adaptive immune cells including, cytotoxic T-cells, Th1-cells, B-cells and T-follicular-helper (Tfh) cells. We described the immunopenotype and antigenome associated with immune escape mechanisms and demonstrated mechanisms associated with pre-existing and proliferating intratumoral T-cells. 

    Based on the immune contexture, a standardized, simple and powerful digital-pathology-based immune stratification-system, termed “Immunoscore”, was delineated having a prognostic power superior to that of the currently used cancer staging-system. Tumor invasion parameters were statistically dependent on the host-immune reaction. A worldwide consortium is validating the prognostic value of Immunoscore, using a standardized-assay. Recent data are supporting the significant role of Immunoscore within lung, liver, and brain metastases and cancer evolution. Thus, tumor progression, invasion and recurrence are dependent on pre-existing immunity and on Immunoscore.

    Learning Objectives: 

    1. To decipher and understand the complexity of the tumor microenvironment.
    2. To demonstrate the need for genomics, immunomics and systems biology to achieve precision medicine.


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